History of the Glidden Co. and of the Work of Adrian D. Joyce and Percy L. Julian with Soybeans and and Soyfoods (1917-2020)

William Shurtleff; Akiko AoyagiISBN: 978-1-948436-25-0

Publication Date: 2020 Aug. 27

Number of References in Bibliography: 622

Earliest Reference:

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Brief Chronology/Timeline of Glidden

1872 Nov. 18 – Adrian D. Joyce is born in Berner County, Ohio, the second child and eldest son of Moses H. Joyce and Annie S. Hotham. He was one of six children, 3 boys and 3 girls (Wayne Dawson, family group record). He lived on a farm until age 17 and taught country school. He attended Olivet College and the University of Michigan but never graduated from college because of poor health (The Book of Clevelanders. 1914, p. 148).

1897 June 9 – Adrian Joyce marries Miss Anna B. Page in Stafford, Genessee County, Michigan (the home of the bride’s parents). Joyce was from Memphis, Michigan. The ceremony was performed by the pastor of St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, in the presence of a few relatives and friends. The couple plans to live in Memphis, Michigan, where Mr. Joyce has business interests LeRoy Gazette {New York}, p. 5).

Their first child, a daughter, was born in March 1898 (LeRoy Gazette. 1898. March 9, p. 1).

1900 May 31 – Dwight A. Joyce is born in Memphis, Macomb County, Michigan. He is the second child and eldest son of Adrian D. Joyce and Anna Bell (Page) Joyce (Wayne Dawson, family group record). By 1927 Dwight and his father were working together at Glidden.

1898 ca – Joyce goes to work for Swift & Co. in Chicago and is appalled at waste in meat-packing methods. He proposes the now basic scheme for converting animal residues into fertilizers (Book of Clevelanders. 1914. p. 148; Fortune. 1949).

1902 Nov. 1 – Adrian Joyce enters the employ of The Sherwin-Williams Co. in Michigan, as a traveling salesman in Michigan; leaves in 1904 (Book of Clevelanders. 1914, p. 148).

1904 ca. – He returns to the Sherwin-Williams Co. to become manager of the large City Sales Department; in 1905, made sales manager of The Southwestern Division of the Company, with headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri; 1906, made district manager, having charge of branches in Omaha [Nebraska], Kansas City and Dallas [Texas]; in 1909, made assistant general manager of the Company, with headquarters in Cleveland; 1910, made general manager, with entire supervision of Distribution and Sales Departments (Book of Clevelanders. 1914, p. 148).

1914 – Adrian Joyce is general manager of sales and distribution of the Sherwin-Williams Co. His very effective system of management is explained in detail (System. 1914. July, p. 637-40).

1916 Oct. – The Glidden Varnish Co. (Cleveland, Ohio) writes: “We use soybean oil in place of linseed oil in some of our dryers and paint productions, and it is our opinion that if soybean oil was commercialized in this country to an extent that it would be sold for a price slightly under the linseed oil price, its use would be very extensive...” (North Carolina State College of Agriculture, Extension Circular No. 29. p. 5)

1917 – Adrian Joyce, age 45, purchases the Glidden Varnish Co. of Cleveland for $2,500,000 – including its well-known Jap-A-Lac trademark. He had to quit his job, sell his stock, and mortgage his home; it took every cent he could muster. Established in 1867 with one store in Cleveland by Francis Harrington Glidden, who, nearing his 90th birthday, was in the mood for retirement. A syndicate was organized, with Joyce at its head, and the purchase was effected by placing the stock in escrow until subsequent payments could be made out of earnings.

The company was incorporated later that year (Soybean Digest. 1952. Dec, p. 22).

1927 Jan. 16 – “Adrian D. Joyce, president of The Glidden Co. since it was founded in 1917, was elected chairman of the board of directors, January 16.

“He was succeeded as president by his son, Dwight P. Joyce, who has been a vice president and director of the company since 1927” (Soybean Digest. 1947. Feb, p. 23)

1929 – Glidden purchases seven good-sized food companies, including margarine factories and for $1,800,000 the facilities of E.R. Durkee & Co. of Elmhurst, Long Island, New York. Durkee had an old and widely respected name in the food business (Fortune. 1949. May).

1932 – Adrian Joyce and Mr. O’Brien travel to Germany to study the soy bean industry there (Washington Post. 1935. Sept. 8, p. B12).

1934 Oct. – Glidden gets the rights to extract lecithin from soybean oil. “Acquisition of exclusive rights to German patents for the manufacture and refining of lecithin was announced yesterday by Adrian D. Joyce, president, Glidden Co. By also acquiring the American patents and business of the American Lecithin Co., Glidden has exclusive manufacturing and refining rights for lecithin in the United States” (Cleveland Plain Dealer {Ohio}. Oct. 25. p. 14).

“The lecithin will be manufactured and refined under patents owned by the Hansa-Muehle Company of Hamburg [Germany]. The product will be marketed under patents owned by the American Lecithin Corporation of the United States" (Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter. 1934. Nov. 19, p. 52).

1934 Dec. 15 – Glidden’s modern soybean solvent extraction plant begins operation in Chicago. It “has a capacity of 130 tons of soya beans per day…” (Annual report to shareholders. 1934).

1935 Oct. 7 – A huge explosion at Glidden’s soybean solvent extraction plant at 1845 North Laramie Ave, in Chicago, Illinois, blew it to smithereens, leveling a city block, killing eleven people, and injuring 45. Fortunately the buildings and equipment were well covered by insurance and full settlement, not only for loss by explosion but for Use and Occupancy was received. Glidden soon rebuilt the plant and made it a model of safety (Time. Oct. 21, p. 34; Annual report. 1935).

1935 Aug. – Glidden starts advertising in the Proceedings of the American Soybean Association (p. 16).

1936 Aug. – Dr. Percy Lavon Julian, a brilliant chemist, begins to work for The Glidden Co. as director of research (Nova. 2007).

1937 July 12 – Glidden runs a full-page ad on the inside front cover of Time magazine. The text describes Glidden’s many uses of the soy bean.

This ad also appeared about 3 weeks earlier in the Wall Street Journal, 24 June 1937, p. 2.

1937 Sept. – Percy Lavon Julian and Glidden scientists develop soy protein that can be dissolved in water and whipped to a stiff white foam resembling egg white. It can be used to replace egg white in culinary preparations since it has various advantages: (a) It is extremely cheap. (b) It keeps indefinitely and can be transported and handled easily and inexpensively (Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 1937. Sept. p. 109-11).

1937 Dec. 12 – The Glidden Co. celebrates its 20th anniversary under the leadership of Adrian D. Joyce. From assets of $2.5 million and sales of almost $2.0 million to assets of $33 million and sales of $54.3 million – that summarizes the proud record during the Great Depression (Cleveland Plain Dealer. p. 51).

1938 Oct. 2 – Anna Bell Page, wife of Adrian D. Joyce and mother of their 6 children, dies. She is buried in Lake View Cemetery at Cleveland, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio.

1938 Nov. 12 – A long article in the Wall Street Journal describes the many new products made by Glidden, then states: “This year Mr. Joyce estimates that Glidden will purchase about 2,500,000 bushels of soy beans. All these beans are processed in the company's plants in Chicago.”

Many of the raw materials Glidden produces are used in the manufacture of its own finished products.

1939 April 6 – Percy L. Julian applies for a patent on “Recovery of sterols, with Edwin W. Meyer and N.C. Krause. U.S. Patent No. 2,218,971 is issued on 22 Oct. 1940.

1940 Aug. – “Glidden presents a complete line of soya products” says the full-page ad on the inside back cover of the Proceedings of the American Soybean Association. The products of Glidden’s Soya Products Division in Chicago include four types of feeds, four different edible soy flours and grits, two types of technical protein, lecithin, and 3 types of oil.

1940 Nov. – The Glidden Company, Soya Products Division, starts advertising in Soybean Digest (p. 11).

1940 Dec. 28 – The Glidden Co.’s annual report to shareholders first mentions the work of Percy L. Julian – but not his name. It states: “In the Soya Bean Division the production of hormones and sterols [by chemist Percy Julian] has resulted in constantly increasing sales which should add materially to our profits in the ensuing year.”

1941 – Mrs. Mary D. Broughton and Adrian D. Joyce are married (Oil Mill Gazetteer. 1952. Dec. p. 13-15).

1942 – Fire-fighting foam is developed to smother oil and gasoline fires on Navy combat ships. Named Aer-O-Foam, it was made by National Foam System, Inc., and sometimes playfully referred to as "bean soup" – because it was made from soybeans (Time magazine. 1943. Dec. 6, p. 86, 88; Soybean Digest. 1944. July, p. 7). It turns out that the base for and key ingredient in this foam, hydrolyzed Alpha Protein, is a type of isolated soy protein developed by Glidden Co. scientists and manufactured by The Glidden Co. in Chicago (Soybean Digest. 1944. Oct. p. 15; Chemurgic Digest. 1946. June. p. 210-13).

1943 March 13 – “Julian’s genius saved firm from huge losses: Leading scientist,” by Denton J. Brooks is published in the Chicago Defender (national edition, p. 13). This is the earliest know biography of Adrian Joyce.

1946 Aug. – “The man who wouldn't give up” [Percy L. Julian], by Paul de Kruif is published in Reader’s Digest (p. 113-18). This is the 2nd real biography of Percy Julian to appear in print.

1947 Sept. – “The Glidden Co. has completed a new plant in Chicago for the commercial recovery of soya sterols. Stigmasterol and sitosterol, two important sterols used in making sex hormones, have been found in small amounts in the soybean but until now have not been recoverable on a commercial scale. The new Glidden plant represents the culmination of 6 years of intensive work by Dr. Percy L. Julian, director of research for the soya products division of the Glidden Co., and his staff. This plant is believed to be the first commercial operation in the world devoted to the recovery of soya sterols by chemical methods.

1947 Jan. 16. – “Adrian D. Joyce, president of The Glidden Co. since it was founded in 1917, was elected chairman of the board of directors, January 16.

“He was succeeded as president by his son, Dwight P. Joyce, who has been a vice president and director of the company since 1927 (Soybean Digest. Feb. p. 23; 30th annual report).

1949 May – “House that Joyce built” [Glidden Co.] is published by Fortune magazine. Glidden is now one of the three biggest paint companies in the world. “Glidden's earnings are excellent rather than flamboyant: since 1930 it has never known an unprofitable year, and dividend payments have been continuous since 1933... Since 1940 Glidden has quadrupled sales and advanced its net income from $1,700,000 to $9,200,000 in 1948.”

1949 Nov. – “Two tremendously important new developments in the synthesis of hormone compounds for possible treatment of rheumatoid arthritis have been announced by the Glidden Company. These new developments are: (1) Synthesis from the soybean of several new hormone compounds closely related to the already proven Cortisone (Kendall's Compound E [Dr. Edward C. Kendall of the Mayo Clinic]), and (2) A new and less costly method of synthesizing the still rare and immensely expensive Cortisone.

"Both are the work of Glidden's Soya Products Division's research staff under the direction of the brilliant Dr. Percy L. Julian.

"Of the new compounds created from the soybean, the most immediately promising is one called Compound S, which has never before existed in quantities sufficient for adequate testing. Although the value of Compound S in treating rheumatoid arthritis is as yet unknown, many scientists believe it will have an effect similar to that of Cortisone.”

For some years the company's soya products division has produced as bulk chemicals the sex hormones Progesterone and Testosterone, synthesized from the soybean by Dr. Julian. (Soybean Digest. p. 19).

1950 Oct. – A photo shows Adrian D. Joyce, chairman of the board of the Glidden Co., as he displays a gram of the first Glidden-made Cortisone, an important aid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Produced at the company's soya products division plant in Chicago, this single gram is worth more than $100 (Soybean Digest, p. 25).

1950 Nov. - Percy L. Julian and family buy an expensive home at 515 North East Ave., Oak Park, Illinois and try to move in to the all-white neighborhood. On Nov. 22 an arsonist attempted to burn down the home (New York Times. 1950. Nov. 23).

1950 – Adrian Joyce steps down as president of The Glidden Co. but remains chairman of the board.

1951 Aug. 1 – “Jumping beaner,” about Adrian Joyce and Glidden, is published by Forbes magazine. An excellent history of Glidden under Joyce.

1952 Nov. 18 – Adrian Joyce, chairman of the board at Glidden, celebrates his 80th birthday. He is tall and erect, with white hair, “he continues to follow his pattern of some 60 years: he starts his day early and works late” (Oil Mill Gazetteer. Dec. p. 13-15).

1953 Dec. 2 – Dr. Percy L. Julian resigns as director of research for the Vegetable Oil and Food divisions of the Glidden company – after 17 years of outstanding research (Chicago Tribune. 1953. Dec. 2, p. C6).

1953 – Glidden’s sales this fiscal year are $211,758, 522 (Soybean Digest. 1954. Sept., p. 56).

1954 June 28 – A new Chemurgy Division is created by integrating five major industrial-agricultural operations of The Glidden Co., announces Dwight P. Joyce, Glidden president (American Paint Journal. July 5, p. 24; Edwin Meyer. 1993. May 10, personal communication)

1954 Aug. 25 – Adrian Joyce, age 81, dies at home in Shaker Heights (near Cleveland) Cleveland, Ohio, of a heart attack (coronary thrombosis) (Source: death record; Soybean Digest. 1954. Sept., p. 56; Chicago Daily Tribune). His eldest son is left to run the empire that Joyce built.

1954 Oct. 31 – Dwight P. Joyce is elected by the directors of The Glidden Co. to be chairman of the board and they reelect him president of the company.

“As chairman of the board, Mr. Joyce succeeds to the position filled by his father, the late Adrian D. Joyce until the latter's death last August. He was elected president of the company in 1947” (Soybean Digest. 1955. April, p. 24)

1955 Nov. – Glidden is now making Promine, an edible isolated soy protein – but not yet selling it.

1957 Dec. – Glidden announces it will build a new $4 million edible protein plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. Work will begin immediately. The new protein product will be marketed under the registered trademark “Promine.” “The soybean-derived protein is the result of years of intensive research by Glidden's chemurgy division, and it has been tested exhaustively in many leading food laboratories throughout the United States.

“Already used in a wide range of food products, Promine has been available in limited quantities for the past 3 years” (Soybean Digest. p. 25).

1958 Sept. 1 – Glidden disposes of its Chemurgy Division (soybean processing and grain merchandising) to Central Soya Company, Inc. Initially Central Soya purchased the Division’s inventory and supplies for about $3.76 million and collected for Glidden accounts receivable of about $2.90 million.

Central Soya will operate the Chemurgy Division’s properties under a three-year lease, with an option to purchase the properties on 31 Aug. 1961 for $8.550 million payable in cash (Annual report: fiscal year ended Aug. 31, 1958).

1959 Oct. – Promine begins to be sold commercially by Central Soya. It is made at the former Glidden plant in Chicago. Central Soya formally opened that plant on Oct. 27 at 1825 North Laramie Ave., Chicago 39. Illinois (Chemurgic Digest. 1959. Oct., p. 12).

1963 Jan. 6 – One of the best biographies of Percy Julian seen to date “Julian aids mankind with his knowledge,” by Clay Gowran is published in the Chicago Tribune (p. 1, 6).

1967 – Glidden merges with SCM Corporation and becomes the Glidden-Durkee Division of that company. The merger was designed to block a bid for control by the Greatamerica Corporation. In less than 10 years the division becomes responsible for two-thirds of SCM’s sales (New York Times. 1967. May 17, p. 63: Michelle Albers at SCM)

1975 March – An excellent biography of Percy L. Julian is published by Ebony magazine (pages 94-104). Titled “Percy L. Julian’s fight for his life, the famous research chemist is stricken by liver cancer,” it says he and his wife had three children: Percy Jr., Faith and Rhoderic.

Note: Leon Rhoderic Ellis was a nephew from Percy’s wife’s side of the family; the Julian family raised him from age 7.

2007 Feb. 6 – An in-depth, accurate, and balanced biography of Percy Julian, titled “Forgotten Genius,” is first broadcast on PBS-TV. It is a Nova documentary dramatization, 1 hour, 33 minutes. As of Aug. 2020 it is available on YouTube, free of charge.

Click here to download the full text to open and read book History of the Glidden Co. and of the Work of Adrian D. Joyce and Percy L. Julian with Soybeans and and Soyfoods (1917-2020)