History of Worcestershire Sauce (1837-2012)

William Shurtleff, Akiko AoyagiISBN: 978-1-928914-43-3

Publication Date: 2012 March 23

Number of References in Bibliography: 533

Earliest Reference: 1823

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Brief chronology of Worcestershire sauce
Millions of people throughout the English-speaking world first tasted soy sauce as the main secret ingredient in Lea & Perrins’ Worcestershire Sauce.
Lea & Perrins’ factory was located on the River Severn in Worcester, a city and county town of Worcestershire in the West Midlands of England – for centuries a major transportation hub – first by water, then (starting in 1850) by rail.
Soy sauce remained the main secret ingredient until World War II, when supply problems caused it to be replaced by hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) (Garnett 1991). Other important ingredients have long been vinegar and anchovies (or essence of anchovy).
1823 Jan. 1 – Mr. John Wheeley Lea, an established chemist, takes into partnership Mr. William Henry Perrins, at his chemist shop on Broad Street, Worcestershire. They prepare a catalog for the occasion which lists over 300 items, including herbs and spices from around the world (The Road from Aston Cross, by Louise Wright 1975, p. 30; The Secret Sauce: A History of Lea & Perrins, by Brian Keogh, 1997, p. 1).
1823 Jan. 21 – Partnership between William Perrins and James Perrins (chemists and druggists in the County of Worcester, England) is dissolved by mutual consent. James Perrins plans to carry on the business alone (London Gazette, p. 111).
1837 – John Wheeley Lea and William Henry Perrins, chemists and partners since Jan. 1823, start to make Lea and Perrin’s Worcestershire Sauce in the back of their chemist shop at 68 Broad Street in Worcester, England. Worcester is a thriving commercial town on the River Severn, which connects it to the Bristol Channel and international maritime trade (Keogh 1997, p. vii, 1-2; Wright 1975. Note: We are not told by Wright when Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce started to be made commercially, or when the first bottle of Worcestershire sauce was sold – a glaring omission!).
Late 1830s – “In a show of great business acumen, Lea & Perrins managed to get cases of their sauce onto all ocean liners that came in and out of British waters. A fee was paid to the on-board stewards, who served the sauce in the dining rooms. Passengers tried the sauce, and, intrigued, would then... buy a bottle to take home. It didn't take long for word to get around, and Lea & Perrins' fame grew quickly" (Hartley 2005, p. 76).
1840 Oct. 17 – Lea, Perrins, & Smith (of Worcester and Cheltenham) run an small ad titled “Worcestershire Sauce” in the Manchester Guardian, England (p. 1). It states: "The Worcestershire Sauce is prepared by us from the favourite recipe of a nobleman of acknowledged gout [taste]; it possesses a peculiar piquancy; it is applicable to almost every dish, on account of the superiority of its zest; the diffusible property of its delicate flavour renders it the most economical, as well as the most useful of sauces." This is the earliest known proof of the sauce’s existence.
1840 – John Duncan & Sons, the New York agent for Lea & Perrins, begins to handle Worcestershire Sauce (Wright 1975, p. 32).
1842 – Lea & Perrins sold 636 bottles of their sauce (Wright 1975, p. 31).
1843 March 5 – This ad appears in the Observer (London), p. 1. “Lea and Perrin’s ‘Worcestershire Sauce, prepared from the recipe of a nobleman in the country. The above celebrated Sauce, has from the time of its introduction, been steadily progressing in public favour; its peculiar piquancy, combined with exquisite flavour, establish it of a character unequalled in the sauces. Noblemen and others of acknowledged gout [taste], pronounce it to be 'the only good sauce;' and for enriching gravies or as a zest for fish, curries, steaks, game, cold meat, &c. especially unrivalled. As a rapidly increasing inquiry is now made for it in all parts of the kingdom, the proprietors beg to state that druggists, grocers, and others may be supplied by their agents: – Messrs. Barclay and Sons, Farringdon-street; Mr. J. Harding, 59, Ling St., Stepney; Messrs. Metcalfe and Co., 16, Southampton Row; and by the wholesale oil and Italian warehousemen in London, upon the same terms as at their warehouse at Worcester. – Sold retail by the usual venders of sauces in half-pint bottles at 1s 6d. pints 2s. 6d. and quarts 5s. each, with the Proprietors' stamp over the cork of every bottle"
        This is the earliest document seen that gives prices for Lea and Perrins’ sauce, or that shows them selling it in three sizes of bottles, or that uses the word “celebrated” or the term “only good sauce” to describe this sauce. They have picked up their first big-name distributor – Barclay and Sons, in London. A very similar ad also appeared in 1843 in The Pictorial Times (England).
1844 July 15 – Ad in Times (London, p. 11). Sold wholesale by the proprietors, Messrs. Lea and Perrin, Worcester; Messrs. Barclay and Sons, Farringdon street; and the principal oil and Italian warehousemen in London;…” Lea & Perrins is now selling their sauce wholesale.
1844 Oct. 4 – An ad for Lea & Perrin’s Worcestershire Sauce appears in The Indian Mail. It is served in the cabin of the Great Western Steam-ship. This is the earliest ad seen for Worcestershire Sauce outside of England.
1844 – Production figures for the year show a record 1,326 dozen 12 oz and 1,314 dozen 6 oz bottles; this totals 31,680 bottles made and bottled in the back of the shop at 68 Broad Street. All bottles are still hand-filled. They soon rented a warehouse on the Quay, then another on Bank St. (Keogh 1997, p. 64).
1845 April 15 – Ad in Times (London, p. 11): "... is pronounced by connoisseurs to be the only good sauce for enriching gravies, or as a zest for fish, curries, soups, game, steaks, cold meat, &c., and its rapidly increasing sale has induced the proprietors to open a warehouse in London. The very general and decided approbation bestowed on this sauce having encouraged imitations, the proprietors have adopted Betts's patent metallic capsules, on which are embossed the words 'Lea and Perrins' Worcestershire Sauce,' as a means of protection. Sold wholesale, retail, and for exportation by the proprietors, Vere-street, Oxford-street; Crosse and Blackwell, Soho-square; Barclay and Sons, Farringdon-street; Metcalfe and Co., Southampton-row; and by venders of sauces generally." This is the earliest known use of the word “connoisseurs” or the word “imitations,” or the word “exportation” (or “export” or “exports”) in connection with this sauce.
        Lea & Perrins has opened a new office in London (“Vere-street,” “Oxford-street”), is exporting, and has picked up their biggest distributor to date – Crosse and Blackwell, London. It is a time of major expansion.
1845 – A manufactory for Lea & Perrins sauce is set up in Bank Street, Worcester (Wright 1975, p. 31).
1846 May 9 – Ad by Lea and Perrins titled “Worcestershire Sauce testimonials” in The New Zealand Journal (p. 107). They “beg to submit the following Testimonials, as a guarantee to the public of the superior qualities of this sauce, and also to caution purchasers against worthless imitations, by observing their names are affixed to the metallic capsule which secures the cork of each bottle, to imitate which is fraud.” This is the earliest ad seen for this sauce in New Zealand or Australia. It is also the earliest such ad seen that mentions “fraud.”
1846 Sept. 19 – Ad by C.V. Earle, agent for Lea & Perrins in the Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser (New South Wales, Australia, p. 3). “Celebrated Worcester Sauce, Patronized by the Royal Family.” This is the earliest ad seen for this sauce in Australia, and the first to use the word “Royal” or to claim that it is “Patronized by the Royal Family.” Note the widely-used spelling “Worcester Sauce.”
1846 Dec. 30 – Ad for Lea & Perrins’ Worcestershire Sauce states: "... may be obtained of the most respectable  dealers in sauces, universally; the wrapper and label of each bottle  bearing the names of Lea and Perrins; without which, it cannot be  genuine" (Manchester Guardian (England), p. 1). This is the earliest document seen that mentions the word “universal” or the word “wrapper” or the word “label” or the word “genuine” in connection with this sauce. Clearly imitations in England were becoming more of a problem.
1847 Oct. 6 – "Lea and Perrin's Worcestershire Sauce,... is acknowledged to contribute to health by its stomachic and digestive properties, is used and recommended by the faculty, and patronised by the nobility and gentry." (Times (London), p. 7). Earliest known use of the words “health” or “digestive” or “nobility” in connection with this sauce.
1850 July 10 – Earliest known use of the term “Worcester Sauce” in New Zealand (New Zealander, Auckland, p. 2).
1850 – The Great Western is the first railway to arrive in Worcester; mechanical transport begins (Keogh 1997, p. 2).
1851 June 9 – Ad for P.T. Barnum’s menagerie mentions “Worcestershire sauce” (Hartford Courant, p. 3). The earliest known mention of this sauce in the United States.
1851 – Worcestershire sauce is first called for as an ingredient in a recipe (“Wild fowl sauce”) in a cookbook – published in England (Soyer 1851, p. 103). It is first called for in a U.S. cookbook in 1857.
1852 March 10 – An article in the “New York City” section under “The label forgeries ended” begins: "Some two years ago a Pearl-street importer, named George Raphael, was indicted at the instance of Messrs. Duncan & Sons, who alleged that defendant had sold large quantities of Worcestershire Sauce, with forged labels, in the name of Lea & Perrins, the English manufacturers. The case was finally brought to trial." The Jury returned “a verdict of Not Guilty. The defendant was therefore honorably discharged, and thus ends a two-years' litigation." (New York Daily Times, p. 1). This is the earliest document seen that mentions "Duncan" or "Duncan & Sons," or that concerns a lawsuit, in connection with Lea & Perrins sauce.
1854 March 1 – “Business notices: "Lea & Perrin's Worcestershire Sauce. – Is the only sauce to which a medal has been awarded by the Juries in the Crystal Palace at New York, for foreign exhibitors, and in order to guard the public against numerous counterfeits the proprietors deem it requisite to state that the genuine Sauce can at all times be obtained of the wholesale agents for the United States, Messrs. John Duncan & Sons, New York.” (New York Daily Times, p. 4). This is the earliest document seen that mentions a medal or the word “counterfeits” (or “counterfeit,” etc.) in connection with this sauce.
1854 March 30 – An ad by Lea & Perrins states: "The celebrity of this sauce has extended to every quarter of the globe, and its efficacy in promoting the general health is becoming daily more observed and acknowledged. In the United States it is held to be the most agreeable condiment, and is esteemed for its tonic and invigorating properties, its habitual use enabling the stomach perfectly to digest the food." "On the continent of Europe these qualities have been testified to, by a gentleman who writes to Lea & Perrins thus – ‘I have carried a bottle of your Worcestershire Sauce in a tour I have just completed through Spain and Portugal, and I believe I owe my present state of health to its use. Your sauce is stomachic, and I think medicinal. I can with truth say there is nothing in a traveller's baggage so essential to his comfort, at least in these countries, as your sauce.’ (Times (London), p. 11). This is the earliest document seen that uses the word "medicinal" (or "medicine" or “medical”) in connection with this sauce, or that mentions a letter from a man who has carried a bottle of this sauce through Spain and Portugal.
1854 – “Extract of a letter from a medical gentleman at Madras [India], to his brother at Worcester, May, 1851. 'Tell Lea & Perrins that their Sauce is highly esteemed in India, and is, in my opinion, the most palatable as well as the most wholesome Sauce that is made.'" This is the earliest document seen that contains (even approximately) these words: "Extract of a letter from a medical gentleman at Madras, to his brother at Worcester..." or “’Tell Lea & Perrins that their Sauce is highly esteemed in India,...’" or "’the most wholesome sauce made.’" This is also the earliest document seen with an illustration of a bottle of this sauce (In: Charles Pope. 1854. Yearly Journal of Trade. 24th ed. London. See p. 84 near end).
1855 – Yearly sales of the Worcestershire Sauce are up to 30,000 bottles. “Travellers [traveling salesmen] covered Great Britain and there were agencies in Australia and the United States” (Wright 1975, p. 31).
1861 Sept. 3 – Ad for “Lea & Perrins’ celebrated Worcestershire sauce” notes: "On the Breakfast, Luncheon, Dinner or Supper Table, a cruet containing 'Lea & Perrins' Worcestershire Sauce' is indispensable” (Hartford Daily Courant (Connecticut), p. 3). Earliest document seen that mentions the use of a “cruet” (or “cruets”) in connection with Worcestershire sauce.
1862 Jan. 2 – Ad for “Lea & Perrins celebrated Worcestershire sauce” states: "Extensive frauds. L. & P. having discovered that several of the Foreign Markets have been supplied with Spurious Imitations of the 'Worcestershire Sauce,' the labels of which closely resemble those of the Genuine Sauce, and in one or more instances the names of L. & P. forged, they have deemed it their duty to caution the public, and to request purchasers to see that the name of Lea & Perrins are upon the Wrapper, Label, Stopper, and Bottle.
        "L. & P. further give notice, that they will proceed against any one who may infringe upon their right, either by manufacturing or vending such imitations, and have instructed their correspondents in the various parts of the world, to advise them of such infringements” (Quebec Mercury {Canada}, p. 1). This is the earliest document seen showing the sauce is in Canada, or containing a threat “to proceed against” infringers.
1866 Jan. 1 – Lea & Perrins have sold their three chemists shops and are now free to concentrate on making and selling their sauce – which is increasingly popular worldwide (Keogh 1997, p. 65).
1866 Aug. 25 – A new brand of Worcestershire sauce (Phillip's) is now being advertised (Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce, p. 7) and sold by Phillips & Company, Ltd. of Bombay – for significantly less than the  price of Lea and Perrins' sauce. This is the earliest document seen that mentions a brand of Worcestershire sauce made by a company other than Lea and Perrins.
1870 Dec. 12 – An article in The Argus (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) notes that James Dunlea, James Nicholson, and Thomas and Richard Fogarty were charged (by an agent of Lea and Perrins) with having on the 20th November last sold certain bottles containing, an article called Worcestershire sauce, together with a forged or counterfeited trade-mark, knowing the same to be the forged or counterfeited trade-mark of Lea and Perrins, used by them in an article known as Worcestershire sauce. The judge agreed. This is the earliest document seen that uses the word “trade-mark” (or “trademark”) in connection with Worcestershire sauce.
1872 Feb. 2 – An article titled “Worcestershire sauce – Rival manufacturers in court,’ in the New York Times tells how Mr. John P. Duncan of Union-square proffered “a complaint against Messrs. James Stevens and Edward Cole, composing the firm of Stevens & Cole, carrying on business at No. 500 Washington-street, charging them with forging the trade-mark of 'Lea & Perrin's Worcestershire Sauce' and selling a counterfeit sauce put up in exact imitation of the genuine article, of which Duncan & Son are the sole agents in this country. The accused were arrested later in the day and arraigned.”
1873 Nov. – The earliest known recipe for Worcestershire sauce (and the earliest in which soy sauce is used as an ingredient) is published in the Notes & Queries” section of the magazine Manufacturer and Builder (New York, p. 264). We read: "[801] Worcestershire sauce [homemade]. – This is quite a complex condiment. It is made of wine vinegar, 1½ gallon; walnut catsup, 1 gallon; mushroom catsup, 1 gallon; Madeira wine, ½ gallon; Canton soy [China], ½ gallon; moist sugar, 2½ pounds; salt, 19 ounces; powdered capsicum, 3 ounces; pimento, 1½ ounces,... Boil 2 pounds hog's liver for 12 hours in 1 gallon of water, add water continually so as to keep up the quantity of one gallon; mix the boiled liver thoroughly with the water, strain through a coarse sieve, and add this to the above mixture..."
1874 March 3 – A humorous article, titled “The U.S. Circuit Court: Worcestershire sauce,” pokes fun at Lea & Perrins’ boastful claim to be “the only persons living, who have any show of right to manufacture stuff of this kind.” But “yet one Charles Hastings of Chicago dared to get up a compound in imitation of the one they prepare…” This is the earliest reference seen to Worcestershire sauce seen in a Chicago newspaper.
1875 March 15 – Ad titled “Caution – In consequence of spurious imitations of Lea and Perrins Sauce,…” states: "... which are calculated to deceive the public, Lea and Perrins have adopted a new label bearing their signature, Lea and Perrins, which will be placed on every bottle of Worcestershire Sauce after this date, and without which none is genuine” (Times (London), p. 1). This is the earliest document seen that mentions a plan to use the Lea & Perrins’ signature on the labels of their bottles to distinguish their genuine article from imitations. However the signature itself is not shown.
1875 May 16 – A long display ad by John Duncan’s Sons in the New York Times (p. 6) begins: “Supreme Court – General term. John W. Lea et al. against Sundry Counterfeiters.” It proceeds to summarize the Supreme Court’s rulings in favor of the plaintiff concerning “false representation and deceit.” This is the earliest document seen that mentions the Supreme Court in connection with Worcestershire sauce.
1874 Dec. 24 – Ad by John Duncan’s Sons titled “There is no relish in the world which is so universally liked…” (New York Times, p. 6). Earliest document seen with these words, later often repeated, in the title.
1875 Oct. 3 – Ad by Lea & Perrins titled “Lea & Perrins' is the only genuine Worcestershire Sauce” (Atlanta Constitution, p. 3). Earliest ad seen for this sauce in a Georgia newspaper.
1875 – Holbrook’s Worcestershire Sauce is now being made in England by The Birmingham Vinegar Co. (The Law Journal (England) 1888, p. 99-100).
1875 – The demand for Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce had spread over much of the United States. It was agreed to import the sauce in casks and bottle it in New York. The secret formula was later divulged to the Duncans and the rights of manufacture in the USA were granted to them (Wright 1975, p. 33).
1876 March 10 – William Espenmuller now makes “Worcester sauce” in the United States at 28½ Indiana Place, Boston (Boston Daily Globe, p. 8). He is an early competitor to Lea & Perrins’ sauce in the USA.
1876 July 26 – The High Court of Justice in England rules that Lea and Perrins, of Worcester, the plaintiff, do not own the rights to the name “Worcestershire” in connection with a sauce such as that made by their company. Richard Millar and Co. is free to continue using this name. While Lea and Perrins appeared to be the first to use that name, starting in about 1836, within no more than two years “other people, of whom one Batty seemed to be the first, began to sell an article under the same name” (Times {London}, p. 11).
1880 Jan. 5 – Display ad by John Duncan’s Sons titled “Great reduction in price: Lea & Perrins signature on the bottle of the genuine Worcestershire sauce” includes large illustrations which show: (1) The earliest known “Lea & Perrins” signature in an ad for this sauce. (2) A bottle of the sauce (San Francisco Chronicle, p. 2).
1881 – A book titled Coffee, by Francis Beatty Thurber, contains a long appendix that covers many different subjects unrelated to coffee. In the section titled “Chinese notes” (p. 279+) we read: “Most of the soy manufactured here [in Canton] is shipped to England, where it is used in large quantities as a base for the manufacture of sauces." Note: Maybe the soy sauce used to make Worcestershire sauce in England came from Canton! In what other sauces was it used in England at this time?
1883 March 11 – Worcestershire sauce is now being sold in Los Angeles (Los Angeles Times, “The city” section).
1884 Feb. 9 – The earliest known “History of Worcestershire sauce” explains: “A scrutiny of the label will show that it is prepared 'from the recipe of a nobleman in the county.' The nobleman is Lord Sandys, and Messrs. Lea & Perrins's connection with the sauce came about rather curiously” (New York Times, p. 3, from London World). This is also the earliest document seen that mentions “Lord Sandys.”
1886 July 25 – During most of the 1800s, the ingredients used in making Worcestershire sauce were a carefully kept secret. Allan Forman, in writing about soy sauce, states: “From the East  Indies to England, where it was still more spiced and flavored and patriotically called Worcestershire sauce.” He is the first to state that soy sauce is used as a key ingredient in Worcestershire sauce (Washington Post, p. 5).
1889 May 4 – Gawne’s Worcestershire sauce is now being made in Dunedin, New Zealand. It is advertised as equal in quality to the imported sauce at half the price (Southland Times (Otago, New Zealand, p. 3; New Zealand Tablet, 15 Jan. 1892, p. 16).
1895 Jan. 24 – Holbrook’s Worcestershire Sauce is now being advertised and sold in the United States (Hartford Daily Courant (Connecticut), p. 12).
1896 – It has become necessary to build a new factory at Midland Road in Worcester. Lea and Perrins begin to make the sauce there in 1896. A photo (Wright 1975, facing p. 33) shows the front of this building at a later date. Despite a disastrous fire in 1965, Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce continued to be made at this plant at least until the 1980s (Garnett 1991).
1902 ca. – Duncan & Sons begins making Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce in New York City (Wright 1975, p. 33).
1902 – For the first time in a cookbook, it is stated that soy sauce “forms the foundation of” Worcestershire sauce (Rorer 1902, p. 334-35).
1904 – Based on chemical analyses in a laboratory, Fesca shows that soy sauce is an ingredient in Worcestershire sauce (p. 159-63). Many subsequent documents confirm this fact.
1905 Jan. 7 – Ad by Lea and Perrins in the Japan Weekly Mail (Yokohama, p. 24) states: "The original and genuine Worcestershire. By Royal warrant to His Majesty the King." Earliest known ad to contain the last sentence in connection with this sauce.
1910Hotel St. Francis: Book of Recipes and Model Menus. L’Art Culinaire, by the legendary Victor Hirtzler, a native of France and one of America’s first “celebrity chefs," is published. He was chef of the Hotel St. Francis in San Francisco from 1904 (the year the hotel was built) until 1926. The lavish hotel was a success right from the start. It "was the best known hotel in San Francisco and probably the best known west of Chicago" [Illinois]. "If the hotel was a grand theater, Victor was its greatest actor.” Worcestershire sauce (called simply "Worcestershire," as in "a dash of Worcestershire," in 8 recipes) is used as an ingredient in a surprising 20 recipes in this cookbook – thus clearly showing its standing as a highly respected sauce and ingredient in the USA.
1914 June 8 – An article in the Times (London, p. 22) titled “Worcester: The making of a famous sauce,” states: "Before being bottled, the sauce is allowed to mature in barrels in the cellars of the factory." "Seventy years ago [i.e., 1844] the output of sauce was very limited and was practically all consumed locally. At that time, and for twenty years afterwards, the bottles were filled from a jug carried in the hand."
1923 Jan. 29 – A recipe for “Chop suey” in the Quebec Daily Telegraph (Canada) first refers to soy sauce as “the Worcestershire of China.”
1923Mrs. Beeton’s Cookery, by Isabella Mary Beeton (of England) contains a recipe for “Worcestershire sauce” (p. 136) in which soy [sauce] is used an ingredient – a relatively late recipe of this type. Another ingredient is walnut ketchup, which may well have served as a substitute for soy sauce.
1930 June 11 – Lea and Perrins is sold to H.P. Foods Ltd.
1935 Dec. – Kar-Kay Hygienic Worcestershire Sauce, made and sold by Carque Natural Foods of California (Los Angeles), is now on the market (House of Better Living Newsletter, Nov/Dec. 1935, p. 3).
1940-1945 – During World War II, when soy sauce became extremely difficult to obtain, its use was discontinued by Lea & Perrins; it was not reintroduced following the end of World War II, but was replaced by HVP (hydrolyzed vegetable protein – which is less expensive) (Letter from J.W. Garnett, Factory General Manager, Lea & Perrins Ltd. 1991. Jan. 29).
1972 – Chef Bonneau’s Premium Worcestershire Sauce, made by Bonneau Products Co. (Portland, Oregon) is the earliest known vegetarian Worcestershire sauce; it is free of the traditional anchovies.
1975The Road from Aston Cross: An Industrial History, by Louise Wright published (xix + 79 pages). While it is basically a history of the Midland Vinegar Co, it contains a good history of Lea & Perrins.
1978 April 19 – Craig Claiborne, food writer par excellence, writes “The Saga of a Sauce” [Worcestershire] in the New York Times (p. C1, C8). His main source seems to have been Lea & Perrins. The story includes many of the myths that Lea & Perrins have invented and disseminated. For example: “The story of this sauce is said to date back to the early 1800s, when the governor general of Bengal returned from his colonial post to his native land, England. He brought with him a formula for a sauce that had been created in India, one which he had enjoyed at his home and offered to his guests.”
1997 – The Secret Sauce: A History of Lea & Perrins, by Brian Keogh published (viii + 135 p.). The best history of Lea & Perrins seen to date, by the company’s longtime archivist.
2005The Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce Cookbook, by Paul Hartley published (80 p.). Includes many early, handsome graphics from Lea and Perrins plus a 3-page chronology of the company.
2005 – Lea & Perrins is bought by U.S. food company Heinz (H.J. Heinz Company).
2012 March – More than 100 records in this book state that soy sauce was used as an ingredient in Worcestershire sauce or call for soy sauce as an ingredient in a recipe or formula for homemade Worcestershire sauce.
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Click here to download the full text to open and read book History of Worcestershire Sauce (1837-2012)