History of Soymilk and Dairy-like Soymilk Products - Page 2

A Special Report on The History of Traditional Non-Fermented Soyfoods

A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History of Soybeans and Soyfoods: 1100 B.C. to the 1980s

by William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi

Copyright 2007 Soyinfo Center, Lafayette, California

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Despite the pervasive influence of Chinese culture throughout East Asia and the presence of Chinese enclaves or Chinatowns in many large East Asian cities, soymilk became popular at a later date in non-Chinese-speaking countries, where it was not traditionally consumed by a majority of the population.

Japan . Soymilk was never a part of the traditional diet in Japan as it was in China. Based on stories we have heard from various tofu makers in Japan, since early times, most tofu shops probably supplied rich soymilk (ordinarily used to make silken tofu) to a few customers who ordered it specially, usually for health-related reasons, as in diabetic diets or because they felt it was a health-giving beverage. Some tofu makers used to deliver a bottle of soymilk each morning to a large number of their regular customers, but little is known of the extent of this practice.

The earliest known reference to soymilk in Japan was by Inouye in 1895; he did one of the World's first nutritional analyses of soymilk, which he compared to that of cow's milk. In 1906 Katayama wrote two articles on soymilk. One described the experimental preparation of a condensed soymilk with added sugar and dipotassium phosphate to retard coagulation; the percent concentration was not mentioned. A nutritional analysis of the product and a method for detecting it in mixtures with cow's milk were also given. The other article described an experiment to make a fermented soymilk cheese similar to Swiss cheese. Neither of these products was made commercially. Later Western writers (Winkler 1913, Fuerstenberg 1917, Kempski 1923, and Piper and Morse 1923) stated that the Japanese made regular or condensed soymilk, but they gave no citation. They were probably referring to either Katayama's article or to the soymilk used to make tofu.


The earliest known production of commercial soymilk in Japan began in the 1950s as a result of the work of an American, Dr. Harry Miller, who (as mentioned above) had started a soy dairy in Shanghai in 1936. Starting in about 1955, Dr. Miller began to recommend that the Japan Saniku School, run by Seventh-day Adventists (of which he was one) serve soymilk instead of cow's milk to their students. The school staff, however, hesitated because of questions they had about its nutritional value and flavor; they knew the cost would be less. In 1957 two Japanese Adventists, Mr. Hidekazu Watanabe and Mr. Hanzo Ueda (who ran a tofu shop at the time) started making Japan's first soymilk on a small scale in Hachioji, Tokyo, bottling it in 180-ml bottles, and selling it locally. Mr. Watanabe later (1981 personal communication) described the treat value to them of Dr. Miller's ongoing technical, nutritional, and spiritual guidance. After some time, directors of the Saniku School visited the small soymilk plant, liked the soymilk flavor, and understood its nutritional value. In 1959 they bought similar equipment, set up a small plant in the school, and started to produce soymilk, which was bottled in 180-ml bottles and served to the students at every meal. In the meantime, Dr. Miller, who was spending 7 months as medical director and surgeon at the Adventist Tokyo Sanitarium, set up a small soy dairy in the hospital kitchen in 1958. It was used to make soymilk, soy whipping cream, soy ice cream, and soy spread, which were served to the staff and patients. Next, in co-operation with the Japanese ministry of Health, he developed a soy dairy system that would fit into any small existing tofu shop and allow them to produce a new line of soymilk and related products. At least one such system was installed.

By 1961 a bottled soymilk was being sold in Japan to which a certain culture had been added to reduce the beany flavor. By 1963 spray dried soymilk powders (such as Proton) were on the market (Watanabe 1974). Also in 1963 Ariyama published the first journal article on soymilk yogurt and in 1965 the Japanese National Food Research Institute (Kenkyusho 1965) did the first studies in fermented soymilk cheese.

In 1969 the Saniku School (Japan Union College) set up an independent food manufacturing company called College Health Foods (which later became today's Saniku Foods) and through it, with the help of Loma Linda Foods in America, began to produce Soyalac soymilk infant formula. By 1981 Saniku Foods was one of Japan's largest soymilk producers. Also in 1969 the Luppy Soymilk Company began to produce what became Japan's first widely popular commercial soymilk. Luppy's founder, Mr. Teisuke Yabuki, wrote The Wonders of Soymilk (Tonyu no Shimpi) , Japan's first book on soymilk, a 160-page work published in 1974.


During the period from 1976-1976 soymilk started to become very popular in Japan for the various reasons described at Stages of Growth; 1970-1981, above. In addition, however, the Japanese took the new methods of making soymilk with no beany flavor and refined them until by 1976 they were making by far the best soymilk in the world--by Western standards. In 1979 one quart of cow's milk in Tokyo retailed for $1.10, versus $0.50 in the US; the better grades of soymilk in Tokyo sold for about $0.60 a quart and, in dairylike grades, tasted remarkably similar to cow's milk. Soon some of Japan's largest food companies had jumped into the promising new industry. Many patents were applied for, soymilk vending machines were set up, and heavy promotion started. In 1976 the three main soymilk manufacturers were Saniku Foods, Nikken, and Haus Luppy. By 1978 total Japanese fluid soymilk production was estimated at 4,000 metric tons (tonnes), rising to 8,000 tonnes in 1979, then 10,000 tonnes in 1980 (worth $13 million), and 17,000 tonnes in 1981 (worth $22 million). By 1979 more than 25 firms had formed the Japanese National Soymilk Association, which helped to set Japan's first official JAS soymilk standards in May 1981. An overview of the industry in 1981 showed the following. There were 9 large manufacturers and 43 small ones (35 of the latter in Kyushu) that made 1,050 tonnes of plain soymilk, 9,450 tonnes of dairylike soymilk ( chosei tonyu ), and 6,780 tonnes of flavored soymilk ( tonyu inryo , with fruit juice, coffee, vegetable juice, etc.). This total 17,280 tonnes represented about 90 million cartons and bottles a year worth $22 million. A typical container was 200 ml and sold for about 60 yen ($0.26). Roughly 30,000 tonnes of whole soybeans were used to make this milk. The largest manufacturers, in descending order of size, were Kibun Foods, Okazaki Marusan, Mitsubishi Kasei, Meiji Nyugyo, Midori Shokuhin, Asahi Shokuhin, Kenbisha, Saniku Foods, and Soken-sha. The first three of these had 70% of the total market share. Soymilk sales were slightly less than l% of cow's milk sales ($2,609 million). A small amount of powdered soymilk was produced, but was used mostly by the food industry ( Daizu Geppo #7, 1981).


There was an exciting variety of flavors available. By 1979 Kibun Foods had developed Soena, a tasty, slightly tangy acidophilus soymilk sold in 250 ml Tetra Brik cartons (see also Chapter 21). That same year Mitsubishi Kasei, one of Japan's largest corporations, began to make an excellent dairylike soymilk, soymilks plus containing orange or pineapple juice, and a delicious kefir-like acidophilus soymilk. Much of their product, called Mapuron, was sold in bulk to the food industry (apparently the first time this concept had been made to work) as well as in 200-ml cartons in vending machines and supermarkets for slightly less the price of cow's milk. If sales continue to increase, they plan to open a number of plants with capacities of 6500 gallons per day (7500 kiloliters per year) in prefectures throughout Japan. The first really excellent dairylike soymilk in Japan was developed by Asahi Shokuhin using the defatted soy meal method; it was sold at most Seiyu department stores in 500 ml typical Pure-Pak milk cartons for roughly 25% less than dairy milk. Marusan produced a health-food soymilk with barley malt sweetener and wheat germ for vitamins. Popular fruit flavors were orange, strawberry, and pineapple. By 1981 some 80% of all soymilk was sold in Tetra Brik cartons, typically 200 ml (6.8 fluid ounces), most with attached sharpened straws. Nestle planned to produce a spray dried soymilk available in 1982. Standup gusseted plastic packages were used by Marusan for some exports to Australia. One extremely interesting phenomenon was the entry of Japan's largest dairy milk marketing companies into the soymilk business. In March 1981 Meiji Nyugyo started production of soymilk and the same month Morinaga Milk Co. was licensed by Mitsubishi to distribute their soymilk. One wonders if large dairy companies in the West will follow this pattern, choosing to offer their customers a choice of dairy and soy rather than trying to fight the rise of soymilk, as butter makers once fought the rise of margarine--and lost. Advertising for soymilk in Japan typically presented it as a healthful, fun, stylish, and alkaline (non-acid-forming) drink, neither quite milk nor a soft drink but something new, good, and good for you. Interestingly The Coca-Cola Company, which markets a line of vitamin-fortified drinks brand-named Hi-C, plans to start test marketing a Hi-C Soymilk in Japan by late 1982; it will be Japan's first soymilk based on soy protein isolate, and Coke's first soy protein beverage marketed outside of Brazil.

India . Soymilk was introduced to India in about 1933-36, when Mr. F.S. Kale and the Maharajah of Baroda introduced it at various exhibitions and restaurants in West India (see Chapter 48). A plan to open soymilk centers for children of the poor was proposed, but failed to materialize. In 1936 when Kale's magnum opus Soya Bean was published in Baroda, it contained a long chapter on soymilk, and urged its use for feeding infants and children who could not obtain enough mother's or cow's milk.

Starting in 1935 Mahatma Gandhi, a vegetarian, began to take a strong interest in soyfoods. Although he was apparently unaware of soymilk, he was looking for such a product. He wrote: "I believe that in the limitless vegetable kingdom there is an effective substitute for milk, which, every medical man admits, has its drawbacks and which is designed by Nature not for man, but for babies and young ones of lower animals. I should count no cost too dear for making a search."

Soymilk was largely unknown in India prior to 1943, the year of the great Bengal famine. That year Sasanka S. De (one of India's soyfoods pioneers; see Chapter 48) and Dr. B.C. Guha of Calcutta University worked together, making soymilk on a small scale and feeding it to several hundred starting infants. In 1944 systematic research on soymilk began at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, where De went to work. A bland soymilk was developed using a new technique: the soybeans were first sprouted for 2 days, dehulled, heated for 10 minutes at 70*C in a dilute solution (0.08%) baking soda, drained, ground, mixed with water, simmered for 15 minutes, and served flavored with a little invert sugar and salt. In 1945 De and Subrahmanyan wrote "Processing Soybeans for the Production of Milk." By 1948 a pilot plant was established producing about 95 gallons (800 pounds) of fresh soymilk daily. Between 1946 and 1948 Desichar, De and Subrahmanyan published three studies on the nutritive value of soymilk, based on feeding studies done on over 6,000 infants, children, and students. By the late 1960s many Indian nutritionists had published extensive research on soymilk; this and related work worldwide was well summarized by Swaminathan and Parpia in 1967. Unfortunately, very little came of all this fine work.

In 1970 two very nice Indian cookbooks were published (Singh 1970; Kanthamani 1970) which made prominent mention of soymilk, including numerous recipes suited to local tastes and methods of home preparation.

In 1973 Dr. Harry Miller went to India to help establish a commercial soy dairy at Spicer Memorial College in Poona, India. What is volume and products in 1980?

Systematic research on soybean utilization started in 1971 at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology in Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, with the joint collaboration of the University of Illinois and the Nave Technical Institute, Shahjahanpur. A small soymilk plant, Pantnagar Soya Milk Products Ltd., was set up inside the university and by 1978 had produced nearly 1,000,000 bottles of soymilk (made by the University of Illinois whole-bean method) had been sold to the students and test marketed. A New Delhi plant was established in 1979; it produced Sipso soymilk in 200-ml bottles and had a capacity of 50,000 bottles a day. Soy ice cream, yogurt, and cheese were also produced on a small scale. A similar soy dairy, located in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, is scheduled to open in early 1981, with a capacity of 150,000 bottles a day. From 1975 on there were an increasing number of journal articles (Prakash 1975*, Kapoor 1978*) on the use of soymilk for dairy milk substitutes or extenders, and for weaning foods.

Philippines . The earliest known mention of soymilk in the Philippines appeared in 1938 when Conception and Paulino used it to supplement the ordinary diet of Filipino children. The first soymilk plant in the Philippines was set up in Manila in 1941, just prior to World War II as a joint venture between Dr. Harry Miller and Mr. Paul Sycip, a chemist who graduated from the University of the Philippines. In August 1941 a full page article and advertisement for Miller's Soya Lac was run in the Manila Tribune. The plant was destroyed by the war but it reopened in 1948. Prior to 1960 a second soymilk plant was set up at the Adventist-run Mountain View College in Central Mindanao. By 1965 a soymilk plant in Manila (perhaps Miller's) was producing 10,000 bottles of soymilk a day (De 1965).

In 1967 Dr. Keith Steinkraus of Cornell University went to the University of the Philippines at Los Banos and helped to set up there a pilot plant that produced 1,000 seven-ounce bottles a day of a soymilk soft drink called Philsoy, as well as some interesting coconut/soymilk blends. Steinkraus was succeeded by Dr. Malcolm Bourne, also from Cornell, who worked at Los Banos from 1969-1970. In the mid 1970s CDCP, a construction group involved in a variety of ventures, entered into a contract with the University's Food Science & Technology Department to run the plant. Production reached 3,500 bottles a day. The price was kept below that of a competing skim milk chocolate flavored beverage and at about the same price as the better soft drinks. After about 3 years the venture stopped due to a breakdown of the equipment, forced to operate at 4-5 times its capacity (Banzon and Escueta 1979); Puertollano et al 1970). In late 1980 Nestle started test marketing a powdered soymilk called Vita to health food markets in the Philippines; it was made at a pilot plant in Japan. A plant in Manila is planned.

Vietnam . Bui (1905) in a detailed discussion of Vietnamese soyfoods, made no mention of using soymilk except to make tofu. Beltzer (1911), who apparently lived in Vietnam, reported that "In Indochina vegetable milk and vegetable cheese made of soy form the base of the people`s nutrition. Cow's milk is hardly known, and it is in large part with soymilk that the people raise and nourish their children." Ray (1951) wrote that the people of central Vietnam (Annamites) are fond of soymilk during the hot seasons. Each morning one sees soymilk sellers circulating through the streets of Hanoi. The product is consumed sweetened or not, cooked with rice, or added to various soups. Nothing was known of the state of soymilk in Vietnam in 1981.


Indonesia . In 1957 the Indonesian Government provided land, UNICEF provided equipment, and FAO provided technical expertise to build a soymilk plant in Yogyakarta, Java. Four of the original technical directors were trained for 3 months at the Hong Kong Soya Bean Products Co. in Hong Kong. Run by the Sari Hasuda Company, the plant started operation in late 1957 and produced about 2 tons a day of spray-dried soymilk brand-named Saridele. Made from soybeans, sesame seeds (and sometimes peanuts and nonfat dried milk), and fortified with vitamins minerals, it had a nutrient composition similar to that of whole cow's milk, sold for a lower price, and was highly acceptable to those who could afford it. A proportion of the production was delivered to the Ministry of Health and distributed to hospitals, orphanages, and other institutions. Unfortunately production was discontinued in 1966, primarily because of the irregularity of the soybean supply and of marketing, cost, and equipment problems; spare parts for equipment became almost impossible to get after President Sukarno withdrew from the United Nations in 1965. Although Saridele was a relatively low cost food, still the quantity required to feed a child for one day, if that were the sole food, would cost about one third of the average manual worker's daily wage.

By 1960 a small soy dairy had been established at an Adventist-run college in Bandung, Java. By 1981 soymilk was being made at the village level in Indonesia by government-licensed businesses for use in schools; it was flavored with ginger plus 8% sugar and a little salt.

Thailand . Commercial soymilk production in Thailand was started by Green Spot Ltd. in Bangkok in 1958. By 1973 the company was producing 33 million 200-ml bottles of Vitamilk a year, and by 1978 about 120 million bottles a year in a large, ultra-modern factory. This unique soymilk contained 25-30% whole dried cow's milk plus added coconut fat. That year other major manufacturers included Rama Food Co., Kickapoo Co., United Mil, Co. In addition The Coca Cola Co., Nestle, and Siam Foods had plans to start making soymilk in Thailand by 1982.

In 196?? a plant for producing full-fat soy flour was established by the ASEAN ?? group in Chiang Mai, Thailand, with a capacity of 15 tons per day. This flour was widely used in the production of soymilk??

Starting in the early 1970s considerable research on development of soymilk products was done by the Applied Scientific Research Corp. of Thailand under the leadership of Prof. Bhumiratana. For example, Varangoon (1970) reported on the development of a mixture of soymilk and coconut milk which could be easily prepared in rural villages and consumed the day it was made; a valuable food for infants and children especially, it was rich in protein and calories. By the late 1970s it was called Kaset Soy milk.

Malaysia . The first soymilk in Malaysia, Vitabean, was introduced by Yeo Hiap Seng in 1952. Lam Soon began production in the 1970s. In 1979 Nestle started making and marketing Bonus soymilk there in Tetra Brik.

Korea . Large scale production of soymilk in Korea began in 1973, when Dr. Chung's Foods Co. Ltd. started to make Vegemil bottled soymilk in Seoul; in 1981 their output was estimated at 432 metric tons. In 1979 Dong Bang Oil and Flour Mills established a subsidiary, Green Milk Co., in Seoul, to make Green Milk. In 1981 they made an estimated 3,000 tons in four flavors, packaged in cartons. Nevertheless, Dr. Chung's (personal correspondence) claimed to be the largest producer with sales of $15 million.

Sri Lanka . In November 1978 a cyclone destroyed over 2 million coconut trees in Sri Lanka, thus suddenly reducing the supply of coconut milk, so widely used in local cooking. (Rapid population growth also put pressure on the remaining coconut supply). A soymilk pilot plant established at the Soyabean Foods Research Center in Peradeniya (see Chapter 43) produced enough soymilk, served at fairs and other occasions to help develop a strong interest in the product. Meanwhile the Sri Lanka Soyabean Development Program, working with INTSOY and CARE, began work on the establishment of a plant to make 4,000 pounds a day (1,000,000 pounds a year) of drum-dried soymilk, which will replace the milk from 10,000,000 coconuts. The plant, located in Anuradhapura and managed by the Raja Rata Food Grains Processing Co., was scheduled to begin operations in late 1981 or 1982.



Soymilk became known and manufactured in Europe before it appeared in the United States.

The Early Years (1739-1919) . The earliest known reference to soymilk in a European publication was by Loureiro in 1793; in speaking of tofu he mentioned "lactis coagulati." By an unusual coincidence, the first recorded feeding of cow's milk to a human infant (by Underwood) also occurred in 1793. The next reference to soymilk and the first to discuss its use as a beverage appeared in 1866 in an article by the Frechman Paul Champion on the production of tofu in China and Japan. Champion, who had lived for some time in China, noted that "The shops where tofu is made are generally filled with Chinese who bring cups to get some of the hot liquid, which is used to make tofu and which has not yet been coagulated; they drink this beverage, which has an insipid but not disagreeable taste, just like we enjoy coffee with tea. For many of the poor, the morning meal consists of a cup of this liquid, in which they dip various types of deep-fried crullers." Ritter (1874) a German, and Paillieux (1880) and Egasse (1888) both Frenchmen referred to soymilk in passing. Prinsen-Geerligs, a Dutch scientist who lived and traveled in Southeast Asia, wrote of soymilk in Dutch in 1895; the article was translated into German in 1896. In his description of the tofu-making process he noted, "The milk-white filtered liquid gives an alkaline reaction. It contains the dissolved legumin bound to potassium phosphate, while the fat is suspended in an emulsion. It has a great similarity to milk and, like milk, forms a skin or film on the surface when heated. It has a horrible taste, reminiscent of linseed oil and raw beans. An #analysis shows that it has a relative density of 1.0194 at 30*C and contains 6.9% solids, 3.13% protein, 1.89% oil, and 0.51% ash." This was the first nutritional analysis of soymilk.

The first real soymilk pioneer in the West was a Chinese gentleman named Li Yu-ying, who lived in Paris (see Chapter 44). In 1905 he submitted a paper to the Second International Milk Congress in Paris in which he emphasized that the introduction of soymilk to Western countries "will be highly beneficial to the public health as well as to the budget of the poor." In 1910 Li was granted the first patent (a British patent) for soymilk production. In their remarkable book Le Soja (1912) Li and Grandvoinnet discussed soymilk and dairylike products made from soymilk in great detail, presented the first microscopic photographs of filtered and suspended soymilk showing that the former was of much finer consistency, gave a nutritional analysis of soymilk compared with human milk and many animal milks, and discussed the feeding of concentrated or powdered soymilks to animals. Li started the first soymilk research lab in the West in 1908 and the first soy dairy in 1910, as discussed in Chapter 44. Li's multifaceted and well-publicized work with soymilk stimulated great interest in the subject in Europe, leading many others to do research, apply for patents, and even start soymilk production.

In 1907 the Frenchman P. Charles ?? wrote "Vegetable Milk," the first entire article by a Westerner on soymilk, published in a pharmaceutical journal.

Another very influential figure in the early history of soymilk in Europe was F.J.G. Beltzer, a French industrial chemist, who was one of the first to see the great potential in the work that Li Yu-ying was doing. In 1911 he wrote a major article on "Research on the Vegetable Casein from Soybeans and its Applications," describing how soymilk was made in Vietnam and how it could be transformed into a host of new products, including soy protein isolates. Also in 1911 this article was summarized in Scientific American Supplement and printed as a special booklet. Beltzer discussed the use of soymilk for infant feeding and diabetic diets and concluded: "The introduction to Europe and France of soyfoods such as tofu and soymilk will allow us to combat periods of scarcity of animal milk and high food prices, and may allow us to use milk casein for food instead of for industrial purposes.

Following Li's soymilk patent of 1910, many other European patents were granted. Goessel was issued patents in Germany in 1911 and 1914, in France in 1912, in England in 1914, and in Holland in 1917. Each was for "Manufacture of Artificial Milk, (from soya beans)." The Englishman Melhuish was granted six soymilk patents in various countries during 1916 and 1917. He also made an early acidophilus soymilk and regarded the soymilk off flavor problems as residing in the soybean's oils. Most of the early soymilk patent developers applied for patents in various Western countries, and each suggested methods for reducing the so-called beany flavor. An extensive chronological listing of all major soymilk patents and articles from 1896-1944 is given in Smith and Beckel (1946).

In 1911 (12??) Loew, a German, gave a brief description of the process for making soymilk and a nutritional analysis; it contained 4.87% protein. In 1913 Neuville, a Frenchman, in an article on new artificial foods, discussed the advantages of soymilk over animal milks as in diabetic diets. A summary appeared in the Medical Review of Reviews (1913). Fischer (1914), a German, compared cow's milk and vegetable milks, including soymilk, finding that soymilk formed smaller, more easily digestible curds in the stomach, that these stayed in the stomach for less time, and that the peristaltic motion of the stomach was less after consumption of soymilk. On the basis of these observations, van Noorden and Salomon (1920) and Kellogg throughout the 1930s and 1940s recommended the therapeutic use of soymilk for many conditions including gastric and duodenal ulcer, peritoneal irritation, and disturbances of the motility of the stomach. In 1916 Prof. Laxa in Prague gave the first detailed description of how to make soymilk in a typical European home; amazingly, no mention was made of cooking the milk and one drop of essence of fresh hay was added to cover the beany flavor (cited in Horvath 1927). Fuerstenberg (1917) gave an excellent update on the soymilk situation in Europe, describing the major manufacturers and their methods. During World War I the Germans did active research on soymilk but few publications remain except for an article in the November 1918 Schweizerische Milchzeitung .

As mentioned above, the first soymilk plant in Europe was started by Li Yu-ying in about 1910 on the outskirts of Paris. Called Caseo-Sojaine, it was a remarkably modern plant using a filter press (resembling that used by sugar mills) and an homogenizer (then called an "homogenator"). Regular and fermented soymilks were made. For unknown reasons, the plant ceased operation in about 1912-14?? (see Chapter 44). Li mentioned in 1912 that a Just. Hatmaker (or his system) made a powdered soymilk containing 7% water, 46% protein, and 27.6% fat. Nothing else is known of this product or where it was made.

In October 1912 the first soymilk in England, called Solac, was manufactured in London by the Solac Company, apparently also referred to as the Synthetic Milk Syndicate by Fuerstenberg (1917). They used F. Gospel's patented method to make a soymilk reported to be well suited to European tastes. The ingredients for 100 liters of soymilk were 10 kg soybeans, 2.4 kg lactose, 2 kg sesame oil, 60 gm sodium carbonate, 6 gm sodium chloride (salt), 5 gm sodium phosphate, and the necessary water. A branch was opened in Liverpool and one was planned in Manchester. In 1915, in the first British article on soymilk, the Lancet ran an editorial on Solac stating that it "looks very like milk and has a round sweet fatty flavor not unlike that of rich milk." One apparent key to the flavor was the use of a lactic culture (The Lancet 1912 and 1915, Fuerstenberg 1917).

During World War I of the Soyamawerke in Frankfurt, Germany, began production of a soymilk called Soyama. It was sold in six different forms: The three milk forms were regular fresh, for diabetics, and for baking; the three cream forms were regular fresh, for diabetics, and extra rich for diabetics. Horvath (1927) gave a nutritional analysis of each and reported that "The Soyama preparations taste softer and more neutral than cow's milk . . . It is hard to detect the difference between tea, coffee or chocolate to which Soyama cream has been added from the same beverages with the addition of cow's milk. Bread prepared with Soyama milk has an excellent taste." Fuerstenberg (1917) reported that Soyama soymilk was good tasting and very healthful, due to its high lecithin content. yet the most popular vegetable milk in Germany at the time was, he said, Lahmannsche Vegetable Milk made from almonds and nuts. Soyama was being produced the late 1920s.

1920-1939 . The full book on soymilk appeared in 1921. Entitled Le Soja et son Lait Vegetal , this 1580-page book by the Frenchman Rouest discussed Li Yu-ying's work in some detail and placed considerable emphasis on the use of soymilk for rearing young animals, thus preventing the transmission of tuberculosis and allowing the animal use to be saved for human use, and mentioned that in Canada a factory was being built for production of soymilk as a calf milk replacer. Rouest saw this latter use as soymilk's greatest virtue. He wrote, "For us, soy will not replace milk or cheese." Also in 1921 Muggia and Gasca in Italy wrote about the therapeutic use of soymilk. Many French articles appeared during the 1930s including those by Terroine (1931), Crevost (1934), and Castagnol (1934), plus a full book by Bordas (1937), which was quite similar to Rouest's of 1931. Lucie Yeu in Paris wrote her PhD dissertation on soymilk nutrition based on feeding studies with 100 infants. Lanzig and Van Veen (1937) published important research in Dutch.

Soymilk production and patents continued during this period. The Soyama Werke Englehardt and Co. was granted a German patent in 1921. Ferree (1929) reported that a soymilk plant started in Denmark in 1929. Bowdidge (1935) stated that "In 1932 a 'milk' was made from English-grown soya beans which had the appearance and consistency of cow's milk, and kept fresh for five days." Kale (1936) described and showed photographs of a large. modern soymilk factory in Russia, apparently started in about 1931 or 1932. He also noted that there was a soymilk plant in Holland.

1940-1959 . There was less interest and activity in soymilk during this period. Ray (1951) wrote an important review of work with soymilk in France and cited a monograph on soymilk in France and cited a monograph on soymilk production written jointly with Kaltenbach and Legris. Tan (1958) in the Netherlands wrote his PhD dissertation on soymilk and its derivatives.

1960-1981 . Producers of soymilk in Europe in 1981 included Itona (Golden Archer brand) and Plamil Foods in England, N.V. Vandemoortele in Belgium, Dansk Soyakagefabrik in Denmark, Lima Andiran in France, and Semper A.B. in Sweden.

The first European to make soymilk internationally was Nestle, which was founded in 1866 making infant milk foods, and by the 1980s made mostly coffee (Nescafe), cocoa, and milk, including infant formulas. The latter account for only 3-4% of Nestle's sales, but drew widespread criticism during the 1980s because Nestle's marketing policies in Third World countries. A book called The Baby Killers and a lawsuit by Nestle drew international media coverage to the issue. In 1979 Nestle introduced Bonus brand soymilk (not infant formula) in Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong, in Tetra Pack cartons. By 1980 Nestle was selling a powdered soymilk in Malaysia and the Philippines, brand-named Vito and Vita, thus becoming the first company to market soymilk regionally in Southeast Asia. Nestle was forbidden from selling soymilk in Switzerland with the word "milk" in the name since authorities fear that the introduction of soymilk will cause an even greater dairy milk glut. Yet worldwide Nestle is making major investments in soymilk.

During this period two European manufacturers of soymilk equipment began to play a major role in world soymilk production: Tetra Pak International and Alfa Laval, both headquartered in Sweden. Tetra Pak International was founded in 1952. Their original package, a non-aseptic (refrigerated) tetrahedronal (pyramid-shaped) carton was hailed as an important innovation since it used the least packaging material per unit volume of product, and was very inexpensive. In 1961 the company introduced the aseptic/UHT Tetra Pak, which was first used in Switzerland to package milk and was being used by the late 1960s in East Asia to package soymilk. The new laminated package was truly revolutionary, in that it required no refrigeration, gave products a shelf life of 6-12 months, and did not need to be returned. It caught on quickly in Third World countries where refrigeration was not widely available, but soon spread worldwide. In 1969 the company introduced a brick-shaped carton called Tetra Brik (or Brik Pak in the US) which began to replace the earlier form. In 1981 about 32 billion of the company's packages were produced worldwide for soymilks, dairy milks, and juices. About half of these were aseptic Tetra Pak or Brik Pak cartons; the rest were non-aseptic. Only after February 1981 did the US Food and Drug Administration allow the use of the aseptic cartons in the US Soymilk makers buy the packaging and lease the filling machine from Tetra Pak international, paying (in 1981) a one-time base rental of about $450,000. At reasonably high output, Tetra Brik cartons were generally thought to be less expensive than bottles, which they gradually replaced. This packaging played a major role in the expansion of soymilk worldwide.

Alfa Laval developed a variety of sizes of compact systems to manufacture its patented suspended soymilk; it marketed these systems aggressively worldwide, including to Third World countries.


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