History of Cargill's Work with Soybeans and Soy Ingredients (1940-2020)

William Shurtleff, Akiko AoyagiISBN: 978-1-948436-22-9

Publication Date: 2020 July 17

Number of References in Bibliography: 641

Earliest Reference: 1940

Click here to download the full text to open and read book History of Cargill's Work with Soybeans and Soy Ingredients (1940-2020)

Brief Chronology/Timeline of Cargill’s Work with Soy

1865 – Cargill is founded by William Wallace Cargill when he buys a grain flat house in Conover, Iowa. In 1865 Cargill had 1 employee and operated in 1 country.

1930 – Cargill has 400 employees in 4 countries.

1943 Jan. – This month Cargill's Feed Department announces the purchase of the soybean crushing mill and feed plant of the Iowa Milling Co. in Cedar Rapids, Iowa (Cargill News, p. 2). The mill is in operation by the end of January.

1943 Oct. 11 – Cargill announces the purchase from the Illinois Soy Products Company of their soybean plant, elevator, and office building at Springfield, Illinois (Cargill News, Oct. p. 16). Cargill started operating this plant on Oct. 13 (Cargill News, Nov. p. 3-6). The plant uses expellers to crush the soybeans.

Note: The Decatur Daily Review (Associated Press) says this plant was sold to Cargill on Oct. 26. The sale “was announced last night by I.D. Sinaiko, president and manager of the local firm since it was established in 1935. Details of the transaction were not disclosed. The plant has a processing capacity of a million bushels of soybeans a year.”

1943 Oct. 13 – Effective today, Cargill, Inc., purchases the Plymouth Processing Mills of Fort Dodge, Iowa (Cargill News, p. 16).

1943 – Cargill acquires Plymouth Processing Company's plant and grain elevator at Ft. Dodge, Iowa (sold in 1971 [to Land O'Lakes]).

1945 – Cargill acquires from Honeymead solvent extraction plants in Spencer and Cedar Rapids (west), Iowa. The solvent-extraction process is used in modern plants today. Dwayne Andreas, later of ADM fame, resigned as vice-president of Honeymead to become general manager of Cargill’s Cedar Rapids operations; Soon Andreas was promoted to a vice-president of Cargill and moved to Cargill’s main office in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Cargill’s president, John H. MacMillan Jr., offered him a 4 percent stock interest. Andreas remained for seven years, making a $400,000 after-tax profit when he sold his stock back to the company. In the process he traveled widely and learned how a global company works.

1945 - 3320 employees - 4 countries.

1947 – Cargill opens a soybean crushing plant at Savage, Minnesota (Lauser).

1949 – Cargill now publishes a periodical titled Cargill Crop Bulletin.

1950 – Cargill builds its first plant specifically designed to crush soybeans in Chicago to serve domestic oil and meal markets. In 1956, a refinery was built adjacent to the crushing plant that produces industrial refined non-edible oil used in paints and other protective coatings and in vinyl products (Lauser).

1953 - 4108 employees - 6 countries.

1954 – Cargill establishes a new research department at Wayzata, Minnesota (JAOCS 1960, Aug.).

1955 - 4390 employees – 11 countries.

1957 – Cargill opens a soybean processing plant in Memphis, Tennessee. A second plant is added adjacent to the first in 1970.

1959 – Cargill expands the scope of its soybean crushing activities to the Southeast by opening a facility in Norfolk, Virginia, and acquired a plant in Sioux City, Iowa, from Sioux Industries.

1960 - 4646 employees - 17 countries. Orange logo

1960 – The Wichita, Kansas soybean crushing plant is acquired from the Soy Rich Company.

1961 – The company acquired the Des Moines, Iowa soybean crushing plant from Spencer-Kellogg Co. In 1967, Cargill opened its first domestic salad oil refinery adjacent to this crushing plant.

1964 Dec. – Cargill [dba Proteinas y Grasas S.A.] first begins crushing soybeans overseas at its new plant in Reus,Tarragona, Spain.

1967 – Cargill opens a soybean crushing plant in Gainesville, Georgia. A refinery, Cargill's first to produce hydrogenated or "hardened" oil for the Southeastern food manufacturing industry, was built adjacent to it in 1979.

1968 – The company opens a second overseas plant in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

1969 Nov. – Cargill CEO Erwin E. Kelm discloses, for the first time, a great deal about its finances and operations – in a speech before the Harvard Business School Club of the Twin Cities. In accepting the club's 'honored company' citation, he told more about the 104-year-old company than had ever been reported in public. He also discounted any thought that Cargill might become a publicly-owned corporation.

Cargill’s sales exceeded $2 billion during each of the past four years. Company earnings averaged better than $14 million in each of those years. Cargill's sales of $2 billion would place it alongside the top 30 or 40 U.S. industrial corporations which are publicly held.

1970 – Cargill opens its 3rd major overseas soybean crushing plant at St. Nazaire, France. The plant is operated by Soja France S.A. – a partnership of Industrie du Soja, S.A., in which Cargill has controlling interest, and Eurosoya, S.A., a French firm. The new plant with a daily input capacity of 1,200 metric tons, is processing U.S. grown soybeans.

1970 – Cargill opens its 4thd major overseas soybean crushing plant at Reus, Spain.

1970 – Cargill builds the Fayetteville, North Carolina, crushing plant, and a refinery was added in 1976.

1971 – Soybean crushing plant at Fort Dodge, Iowa, sold to Land O'Lakes.

1973 – Soybean processing complex began operations at Ponta Grossa, Brazil. Other plants at Ponta Grossa are Anderson Clayton and Irmaus Pereira.

1973 Nov. – According to a study by Lehman Brothers of the Ralston Purina Co. and of the soybean crushing business, Cargill is now the largest U.S. soybean processor with 18.0% of the market and 130 million bushels crushed lst year. No. 2 is ADM with 16.6% followed by Central Soya with 12.5%.

1975 – Cargill acquires a soybean crushing plant in Osceola, Arkansas.

1976 – A soybean crushing plant is built at Barcelona, Spain (Lauser).

1977 – 23,535 employees - 5 countries. Green circular logo.

1977 – Soybean plant is constructed and operations began at Brest, France.

1978 – The company opens a soybean processing plant in Sidney, Ohio, to serve domestic meal and oil markets. This facility is the company's first soybean processing plant designed to burn coal as its source of power.

1980 – Construction began on vegetable oil refinery adjacent to Wichita soybean crushing plant; operations started in late 1981.

1981 Cargill acquires a crushing plant in Antwerp, Belgium.

1981 – Cargill acquires a soybean crushing and vegetable oil refinery complex in Hartsville, South Carolina.

1982 – Cargill acquired a soybean crushing plant in Monte Alto, Brazil.

1982 – Summary and Update: Soybean Crushing: The company now operates soybean processing plants in the United States, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Brazil. The plants range in capacity from 20,000 to nearly 120,000 bushels a day. In the U.S., the company operates 15 plants in Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Kansas, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Arkansas and Ohio. It operates 6 U.S. refineries located in Gainesville, Georgia; Fayetteville, North Carolina; Des Moines, Iowa; Hartsville, South Carolina; Chicago, Illinois and Wichita (Greg C. Lauser, personal communication, 1982).

1984 Oct. – Cargill buys six soybean crushing plants from Ralston Purina. The move is part of Ralston’s attempt to move away from commodity-based business. Cargill now owns 20 soybean crushing plants in the Midwest and Southeast. With this transaction Cargill passes ADM to become America's largest soybean crusher.

1984 – Cargill is now ranked as the largest privately-held company in the USA. It has sales of $30 billion and 40,000 employees.

1985 – Cargill is widely considered to be the largest soybean crusher in Europe. Their capacity is 5,500 tonnes per day at 5 plants; 2 in France, and one each in Belgium, Netherlands, and Spain.

No. 2 is Unilever with approx. 7,100 tonnes/day capacity (Leysen 1985).

1986 March – Cargill acquires (from Continental Grain Co.) a soybean crushing mill (2,000 tonnes per day capacity), oil refinery and bulk handling facility in Liverpool, England (Feedstuffs, Jan. 6, 1986). This is Cargill’s first soybean crushing plant in England, although the company presently operates a multi-seed plant in Hull.

The Liverpool mill was first built by Continental in 1975-77 (Anderson 1985).

1986 Nov. – Cargill leads Forbes list of largest private firms for the second year in a row. The company has $32 billion in sales – twice that of second-place Koch Industries.

1986 Dec. 8 – Central Soya purchases 7 of 9 Bunge's soybean crushing plants. ADM is now estimated to control 30% of U.S. crushing capacity followed by Cargill (25%), Central Soya (20%), and other (25%).

1987 – Cargill is now in the seed business with Cargill Hybrid Seeds.

1987 – Cargill B.V. (affiliate of Cargill Inc.) makes textured soy flour in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (Soya Bluebook, 1987, p. 78)

1990 – ConAgra recently passed Cargill to become the largest U.S. meat packer (Wall Street Journal. 1990 June 13, p. A1, A4).

1992 spring – Cargill plc relocates its European headquarters from Hammersmith, London to Knowle Hill Park Fairmile Lane, Cobham, Surrey KT11 2PD, UK.

1994 – Cargill, which is one of only 3 members of the Soy Protein Council, makes only three soy protein products / ingredients: defatted soy flour, textured soy flour, and flavored textured soy flour, which are all produced at one plant in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. These products end up as ingredients in consumer products (sold by Shilling, McCormack, etc.), Cargill (like ADM) does not sell any consumer products.

1997 – America’s top ten seed companies (based on 1996 sales of all crops): (1) Pioneer Hi-Bred International $1,721 million. (2) Novartis Seeds $959 million. (3) Limagrain $552 million. (4) ELM / Seminis $525 million (5) DeKalb Genetics $388 million. (6) Asgrow Seed Co. $175 million* (* = estimate). (7) Garst Seed Co. $165 million*. (8) Mycogen Seeds $156 million. (9) Cargill Hybrid Seeds $155 million*. (10) Delta & Pine Land $153 million.

1998 June 30 – Monsanto Company agrees to pay $1.4 billion for Cargill's international seed operations. In fiscal 1997 Cargill rang up $56 billion in sales. It rarely sells its businesses, but Monsanto made an offer it couldn't refuse (Wall Street Journal).

2000 Jan. 11 – Cargill and Dow Chemical announce they are ready for full-scale production of "natural plastic" made from plants (such as corn or wheat) instead of petroleum. They have committed to spend $300 million over the next 2 years on the business, brand-named NatureWorks. This includes construction of a manufacturing plant in Blair, Nebraska, that will make 300 million lb/year of the new plastic named polyactide, or PLA. It will be biodegradable – but within what time period is not given (Wall Street Journal).

2000 Jan. – Cargill, Inc. purchases an interest in the body of intellectual property created by Michael Richards during his previous 9 years of research and development of soybean oil candles. Mr. Richards' soy wax formulas are marketed under the trade name “Phytowax” (personal communication, Michael Richards).

2000 Aug. – Cargill set to enter the soy protein isolate market by June, but they will not begin full-scale production for about 2 years (Bluebook Update, Bar Harbor, Maine, July/Sept. p. 1; see also April/June issue).

2001 summer – Cargill Nutraceuticals officially launches AdvantaSoy isoflavones, which is available in regular and non-GMO versions, is not produced using solvent extraction, and keeps the isoflavones in their natural state (Nutrition Business Journal, Oct.)

2001 Oct. – Cargill has a new division named “Cargill Nutraceuticals.”

2002 Sept. – Cargill’s new AdvantaSoy Clear, a source of concentrated soy isoflavones, is given GRAS status.

2002 Dec. – Cargill Soy Protein Solutions announces the commercial availability of Prolísse, their new soy protein isolate, made at their new plant in Sidney, Ohio. The product, which is said to have a bland taste and good solubility, was unsuccessful.

2003 - 99181 employees - 58 countries. Thrive logo.

2015 - 143,000 employees - 67 countries. Thrive logo.

2019 – The six largest agricultural commodity traders, ADM, Bunge, Cargill, LDC, COFCO Int. and Glencore Agri, committed themselves to monitoring their soy supply chains in Brazil’s Cerrado.

Click here to download the full text to open and read book History of Cargill's Work with Soybeans and Soy Ingredients (1940-2020)