History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in Africa (1857-2019)

Willaim Shurtleff, Akiko AoyagiISBN: 978-1-948436-07-6

Publication Date: 2019 Apr. 01

Number of References in Bibliography: 3228

Earliest Reference: 1857

Click here to download the full text to open and read book History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in Africa (1857-2019)

Brief chronology of Soybeans in Africa

1858 March – Egypt. Soybeans are first cultivated in Egypt – and in Africa (Bulletin de la Societe d’Acclimatation 1858, March, p. 106).

1873 – Tunisia. Soybeans are obtained from Tunisia by Haberlandt (1878). They were probably cultivated in Tunisia by this time (Matagrin 1939).

1880 Nov. – Algeria. Soybeans are first cultivated in Algeria, a French colony until 1962 (Paillieux 1880) although they may have been cultivated there as early as about 1860 (Epremesnil 1860).

1893 April – Madagascar. Soybeans are cultivated in Madagascar (Le Temps (Paris) April 8, p. 2; based on l’Avenir de Diego Suarez of March 2).

1902 Nov. – South Africa (Ruled by Britain). Soybeans are first cultivated (Transvaal Agricultural Journal, July, p. 10-11).

1903 Feb. – Cameroon. Soybeans are first cultivated (Gartenwelt, Feb. 26, p. 222-26).

1906 April – Zimbabwe (British colony; Southern Rhodesia from 1923 to 1970; Part of Rhodesia from 1970-1979). Soybeans are first cultivated (Rhodesian Agricultural Journal, 1906, ppp).

1907 – Tanzania (German East Africa until 1946). Soybeans are first cultivated (ZZZ)

1908 – Mauritius (Ile Maurice). Soybeans are first cultivated (Boname 1910).

1908 – Great Britain. The traditional oilseeds linseed and cotton seed were in short supply, particularly in the city of Hull – a center of oilseed crushing. Soybeans began to be imported from Manchuria, initially by Mitsui, a Japanese conglomerate. Soybean supplies in Manchuria were abundant after the Sino-Japanese war – which Japan won.

This was the age of colonialism and the British Empire. Britain, which owned many colonies in Africa, decided to test, systematically, the ability of soybeans to produce good yields in British colonies. The leaders of the British effort were Sir Alfred Jones and Mr. Grenville Turner.

1909 Sept. – Gambia (British colony). Soybeans are first cultivated (Bulletin of the Imperial Institute) (London).

1909 – Ghana (British colony). Soybeans are first cultivated (Mercer-Quarshie 1975).

1909 – Kenya (British colony). Soybeans are first cultivated (Bulletin of the Imperial Institute) (London).

1909 – Tunisia. Soybeans are first cultivated (Itie 1910). See also 1873 above.

1909 – Malawi (British protectorate named Nyasaland from 1891 to 1964). Soybeans are first cultivated (Giller & Dashiell 2006, p. 76).

1910 – Nigeria (British colony). Soybeans are first cultivated. (Bulletin of the Imperial Institute) (London).

1910 – Sierra Leone (Allied with Britain; haven for freed British slaves since 1787). Soybeans are first cultivated (L’Economiste Francais 2009 Apr 9; Wall Street Journal 1910 Apr 16).

1910 March – Zambia (British colony; Northern Rhodesia until 1964). Soybeans are first cultivated (Bulletin of the Imperial Institute) (London).

1911 – Madagascar. Soybeans are first cultivated (Delmotte 1919).

1912 – Sudan (Part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan from 1899 to 1956). Soybeans are first cultivated (Kaltenbach 1936, Aug).

1913 – Uganda (British Protectorate). Soybeans are first cultivated (Tothill 1940, p. 181-82).

1915 Dec. – Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC or DR Congo, formerly Zaire, 1971-1991, and Belgian Congo, 1908-1960). Soybeans are first cultivated (Bulletin Agricole du Congo Belge, Sept/Dec., p. 272-81).

1915 – Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa until 1975). Soybeans are first cultivated (Oil and Colour Trades Journal) (London). They were next cultivated in 1938 (Daenhardt 1973).

1921 – Congo Republic (French). Soybeans are first cultivated (Bulletin de la Societe d’Acclimation 1921).

1921 approx. – Morocco. Soybeans are first cultivated (Kaltenbach 1936, Aug.)

1923 – Mali. Soybeans are first cultivated (Vuillet 1924).

1927 – Burudi (Part of Ruanda-Urundi until 1962). Soybeans are first cultivated (Lejune 1938).

1927 – Rwanda (Part of Ruanda-Urundi until 1962). Soybeans are first cultivated (Lejune 1938).

1927 Oct. – Libya. Soybeans are first cultivated (Vivenza 1928).

1927 – Somalia. Soybeans are first cultivated (Vivenza 1928).

1928 – Angola (Colony of Portugal). Soybeans are first cultivated (Abreu Velho 1938).

1932 – Swaziland. Soybeans are first cultivated (Lochrie 1934).

1935 – Guinea (French Guinea until 1958). Soybeans are first cultivated (Porteres 1946, Nov.).

1936 – Lesotho (Basutoland until 1966). Soybeans are first cultivated (Sampson 1936).

1936 – Réunion (Reunion). Soybeans are first cultivated (International Institute of Agriculture 1936).

1936 – Seychelles. Soybeans are first cultivated (Sampson 1936).

1938 – South Africa. ProNutro, the earliest known commercial soyfood product in Africa, is introduced by Hind Brothers & Co. Ltd. (Odendaal 1965).

1939 – Benin (Dahomey before 1975). Soybeans are first cultivated (Matagrin 1939).

1939 – Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). Soybeans are first cultivated (Matagrin 1939).

1939 – Togo (Togoland until 1914). Soybeans are first cultivated (Matagrin 1939).

1942 – Burkina Faso (Upper Volta until 1984). Soybeans are first cultivated (Chevalier 1948).

1945 – Ethiopia. Soyfoods first appear in Ethiopia (Madison Survey 1945). Soybeans have not yet been reported.

1950 – Ethiopia. Soybeans are first cultivated (Mengistu 1981).

1952 – Central African Republic. Soybeans are probably first cultivated (Hardy 1954).

1952 – Gabon. Soybeans are first cultivated by Dr. Albert Schweitzer (Hauser 1952).

1960 – Cape Verde, Eritrea, and Liberia. Soyfoods (Meals for Millions) first appear in these countries. Soybeans have not yet been reported.

1961 – Africa. Total soybean production in Africa is estimated at 7,183 tonnes, according to FAO – The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

1963 – Senegal. Soybeans are first cultivated (IRAT-CNRA 1964).

1964 – Liberia. Soybeans are first cultivated (Kromah 1975).

1965 – Uganda. Africa Basic Foods, black Africa's first soyfoods company, is started in Uganda by Dr. D.W. Harrison, a black American and Seventh-day Adventist medical missionary.

1966 – Nigeria. Soy-ogi, a traditional fermented, cassava-based food, now fortified with soy, developed by Akinrele in Nigeria.

1971 – Comoro Islands / Comoros. Soybeans are first cultivated (IRAT-Comores 1972).

1973 – Mauritania. Soyfoods (USDA Food for Peace program) are first introduced. Soybeans have not yet been reported (USDA 1974).

1974 – Niger. Soybeans are first cultivated (Larcher 1988).

1975 – Chad. Soybeans are first cultivated (Akintayo 1995).

1976 – Botswana (Bechualand until 1966). Soybeans are first cultivated as part of INTSOY trials (Judy & Whigham 1978).

1978 – Djibouti. Soyfoods (USDA Food for Peace program) are first introduced. Soybeans have not yet been reported (USDA 1978).

1981 May – Guinea Bissau (Portuguese Guinea until 1974). Soybeans are first cultivated as part of INTSOY trials (Jackobs, Smyth and Arickson 1984)

1990 March – Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni and Fernando Po). Soybeans are first cultivated (Lequeau 1991).

1990 – Sao Tome & Principe. Soybeans are first cultivated (Lassouarn 1991).

2007 – Africa. Total soybean production in Africa is estimated at 1,253,879 tonnes, according to FAO. This is a remarkable 175-fold increase over 1961.

The leading soybean producers in 2007 (all with strong historical ties to Great Britain) are:

Nigeria 604,000 tonnes.

South Africa 205,000 tonnes.

Uganda 176,000 tonnes.

Zimbabwe 112,300 tonnes.

Egypt 52,500 tonnes.

2011 Jan. 8 – The first edition of this book (2009) wins the Oberly Award for the best English-language bibliography in the agricultural or natural sciences.

2013 – U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) awards $10 million to the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Soybean Value Chain Research (Soybean Innovation Lab, SIL at the University of Illinois at Urbana) to help build the foundation of the soybean industry in emerging markets, principally in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition there are multiple external grants totaling $2.4 million. SIL, in turn, works closely with the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), headquartered in Ibadan, Nigeria.

2018 July – A report from the European Union shows: South Africa is by far the largest soybean producer in Africa (31% of total), followed by Nigeria (25%), Zambia (11%), Uganda (6%), Malawi (6%), Zimbabwe (3%), Mozambique (2%), and the rest of Africa (16%) (Meyer et al. 2018).

2018 Sep. 19 – USAID adds $6 million more to its original award to the Soybean Innovation Lab for 3 more years. The team currently operates in 17 countries including Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

2019 April - The Future of Soybeans in Africa: Will the growing production of soybeans be used as food for the people (such as soy flour, green vegetable soybeans, fermented or flavored soymilk), or will they be fed to livestock, or will they be exported to earn foreign exchange?
For a continent which has no good protein source and where there is widespread protein malnutrition, we strongly support the use as food. Africa needs a soyfoods movement!

Click here to download the full text to open and read book History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in Africa (1857-2019)