History of Research on Soy Proteins - Their Properties, Detection in Mixtures, Soy Molasses, etc. (1845-2016)

William Shurtleff, Akiko AoyagiISBN: 978-1-928914-84-6

Publication Date: 2016 Jan. 30

Number of References in Bibliography: 1573

Earliest Reference: 1845

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Brief chronology/timeline of research on soy proteins.
 
 
1838 – Proteins are first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius.
 
1845 June 27 – The words “albumen” and “nitrogen” and the term “vegetable albumen” are first used in connection with soybeans. Liebig, the famous German chemist, says: “The third constituent of the vegetable food of animals is vegetable caseine. It is chiefly found in the seeds of peas, beans, lentils, and similar leguminous seeds. Like vegetable albumen, it is soluble in water, but differs from it in this, that its solution is not coagulated by heat.”
      The composition of “100 parts of vegetable cheese. Carbon, 54.138. Hydrogen 7.156. Nitrogen 15.672. Oxygen, &c. 23.034.” (Vermont Watchman & State Journal {Montpelier}, p. 1, col. 6).
 
1859 Jan. 8 – The word “nitrogenous ” and the term “nitrogenous matter” are first used in connection with soybeans. “In the East Indies there are a number of cereals and pulses which are exceedingly nutritious, and deserving of introduction; one of these called Boot (the soja hispida), contains 46 pounds of nitrogenous matter in every hundred cwt;” (“New Agricultural Products.” Scientific American. p. 141).
 
1861 Jan. – The words “proteine” and “albuminous” and the term “albuminous compounds” are first used in connection with soybeans. The Chinese cake contains a large “quantity of albuminous or proteine compounds,…” The composition of the seeds is: Water 10.55%. Oil 20.28%. Albuminous compounds 38.60%. Starch, gum, &c. 18.72%. Fibre 5.11%. Ash 6.74%.” (Anderson. Transactions of the Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, p. 506-06).
 
1862 – The word for “protein” (tanpakushitsu) is first used in Japanese in the book Shichi shin-yaku [Seven new medicines] – but with no connection to the soybean.
 
1866 – The first French-language document concerning soy protein is titled Essai sur la pharmacie et la matière médical des Chinois [Essay on the pharmacy and the materia medica of the Chinese], by M. Debeaux. He states: To make tofu the seeds are ground and boiled in water, then filtered through a cloth; the vegetable casein (la caséine végétale) is then coagulated by the addition of acidulated / acidified water. The coagulum is then treated like that of milk precipitated by rennet. The cheese thereby obtained has the aroma and
 
1871 Dec. 1 – The word “protein” is first used in connection with soybeans (Tropical Agriculturist, p. 567).
 
1872 June 25 – The first German-language document concerning soy protein, titled Einiges Neue zur Familie der Hülsenfrüchte [Some new information on the legume family], is published in the Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Zeitung. A table giving the nutritional compositional of various plants shows Soja hispida has by far the highest content of both nitrogen-rich constituents (stickstoffreiche Bestandtheile; 41.54% protein) and fats.
 
1872 – Later the same year, another German-language article titled Untersuchung von chinesischen Oelbohnen [Investigation of Chinese oilbeans (soybeans)], by Adolph Stöckhardt and Emmanuel Senff is published in Der Chemische Ackersmann. It is the first German language article to focus solely on the soybean. A laboratory analysis of two soybeans shows that they contain 38.54% nitrogen-containing substances (stickstoffhaltige Substanzen).
 
1879 – The words “albuminoids” and “legumin” are first used in connection with soybeans. The former means “protein.” The latter is a type of protein. A table shows the percentage composition of White round soy bean or Miso mame: “Water 11.32, albuminoids 37.75, fat 20.89, fibre 1.50, ash 3.86, starch and soluble cellulose 24.58. Total 100.00”
      When making tofu, “the liquid, containing legumin in solution, is precipitated by the addition of the brine which runs off from sea salt during its deliquescence in the air.” (Kinch. Japan: A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Agricultural Products Exhibited in the Sydney International Exhibition… p. 22-26; Cook, G.H. 1879. “The soja bean; a new forage plant, p. 54-58).
 
1883 – In the German-language article Ueber die Bestandtheile der Bohnen von Soja hispida [On the constituents of the soybean], E. Meissl and F. Böcker of Austria discuss (for the first time) the properties and composition of soya casein (Sojacaseïn) and soya albumen (Albumin der Soja). They call attention to the characteristics that soya casein has in common with animal casein.
 
1883 – The word “albumenoid” is first used in connection with soybeans. Soja bean plant in fresh state:… “The seed, dried at 212°F, was found to contain 5.20 per cent. of ash, 40.37 per cent. of albumenoid substance, and 15.96 per cent of fat (ether extract).” (Sturtevant. “Report of the Director.” New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Annual Report, p. 24 ).
 
1884 – The word “proteid” is first used to mean “protein” in connection with soybeans. “The Soja bean, imported from Japan, like all leguminous fruits, contains a large amount of proteids, and is moreover very rich in fatty constituents” (Year Book of Pharmacy {London}, p. 228-29).
 
1888 May – The Japanese word for “protein” (tanpakushitsu) is first used in connection with soybeans in an article titled Shibô no eiyôtaki kôyô (Digestion experiments with rice and tofu) published in the Tokyo Igakkai Zasshi (J. of the Tokyo Medical Society).
 
1888 July – The term “crude protein” is first used in connection with soybeans. “The specimen of soy beans examined by us contains the following proportions of digestible nutrients, percent of the dry matter: Crude protein 34.30, fat 18.25, fiber 9.09; nitrogen-free extract 19.65;…” (Kellner, O.J. Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, Tokyo Imperial University, p. 39-45).
 
1892 March – The terms “vegetable protein” and “animal protein” are first used in connection with soybeans (Speth, G. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 17. p. 196-98).
 
1897 April – Amino acids are first mentioned in connection with soy by Oscar Löw in a German-language article titled Ueber die Bereitung der Shoyu-Sauce [On the preparation of soy sauce]. He states that shoyu contains: Amino acids (Amidosäuren) 0.5 to 1.21%.
 
1898 – “Proteids of the soy bean (Glycine hispida),” by Thomas Burr Osborne and George F. Campbell is published in the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Annual Report. For the year 1897, p. 374-82). This is the most important publication on this subject to date, worldwide.
      The words “globulin,” “Glycinin,” “albumin” and “proteose” are first used in connection with soybeans in this article, which states: “We propose for this globulin the name Glycinin.”
      “Besides these globulins about 1.5 per cent. of the albumin-like proteid legumelin was obtained.”
      “Owing to the small amount of proteose no evidence was obtained as to the purity or individuality of this preparation.
 
1907 Sept. – The names of individual amino acids are first mentioned in connection with the soybean in an article by Thomas B. Osborne and S.H. Clapp titled “Hydrolysis of glycinin from the soy bean,” published in the American J. of Physiology. A table shows: "The results of this hydrolysis calculated to a moisture and ash free basis were the following:
Glycocoll 0.97%.
Alanine – not isolated.
Valine 0.68%.
Leucine 8.45%.
Proline 3.78%.
Phenylalanine 3.86%.
Aspartic acid 3.89%.
Glutaminic acid 19.46%.
Serine – not isolated.
Tyrosine 1.86%.
Arginine 5.12%.
Histidine 1.39%.
Lysine 2.71%.
Ammonia 2.56%.
Tryptophane – present.
Total 54.73%."
 
1909The Vegetable Proteins, by Thomas B. Osborne, is the first book on this subject. Published in New York by Longmans, Green and Co. (xiii, 125 pp.), it contains a remarkable 608 references.
      The term “plant proteins” is first used in connection with soybeans. “In 1836 Boussingault published elementary analyses of several plant proteins, which marked a new epoch in the development of their study, for these analyses were soon followed by those made in 1839 by Mulder and by those made by Liebig and his pupils in 1841 and the years immediately following… Liebig asserted in 1841 that the different forms of plant proteins known at the time were identical with the proteins of animal origin which bore similar names. He recognized four such substances, namely vegetable albumin, plant gelatin, legumin or casein, and plant fibrin.”
 
1911 Jan. – The term “soy bean protein” is first used in connection with soybeans (Mendel and Fine, Journal of Biological Chemistry, p. 439).
 
1912 July – The British term “soya bean protein” is first used in connection with soybeans (Crossley-Holland, Year-Book of Pharmacy {London}, p. 489-95).
 
1918 Feb. – The term “complete protein” is first used in connection with soybeans. “Another point in favor of the soy bean is the fact that the protein which it contains is a complete protein. That is, it is capable of fully supplying the place of lean meat, milk or eggs.” (Kellogg, John Harvey. Good Health, p. 111).
 
 
1923 – The term “soy-casein” is first used in connection with soybeans, in the section titled “Vegetable casein.” (Piper & Morse. The Soybean. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 233-34).
 
1924The Vegetable Proteins, 2nd ed., by Thomas R. Osborne is published. The first edition was published in 1909, by the same publisher. The number of pages has increased by 21% (to 167) and the number of references by 35% (to 820). The principal globulin found in the seeds of the soy bean is glycinin. Legumelin is also found in soy-bean seeds,
 
1929 Dec. 18 – The British term “soya proteins” is first used in connection with soybeans (Medical Press, p. 506-07.
 
1933 April – The modern term “soy protein” is first used in connection with soybeans (Staley Journal, p. 3-5). This term is first used in the title of an article in Sept. 1941: “Increase sought in soy protein output” (Food Industries. P. 76-77).
 
1945 Feb. – The term “protein quality” is first used in connection with soybeans during World War II (McCay, J. et al. “Soybeans: An old food in a new world.” Cornell University, Extension Bulletin No. 668, p. 35).
 
1949 – The terms “sedimentation diagram,” “sedimentation constant,” “Svedberg units,” and the word “ultracentrifuge” are first used in connection with soybeans. The seed globulins of nine different species of cereal grains and 34 different specimens of legumes (incl. Glycine Soja and Arachis hypogæa) were investigated. For each is given a "sedimentation diagram" – also called an “ultracentrifuge diagram,” with “sedimentation constants.”
      Table 7 (p. 397) gives the “Sedimentation constants of the globulin components of various Leguminosæ (in Svedberg units).” (Danielsson, C.E. Biochemical Journal. 44(4):387-400).
      Note: The author worked in the laboratory of Swedish chemist Theodor Svedberg (1884-1971), winner of the 1926 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his invention of the ultracentrifuge, etc.
 
1955 Feb. – The term “sedimenting components” is first used in connection with soybeans. “At least four sedimenting components were present with s constants of 15, 11, 7 and ca [about] 2 S” (Naismith, W.E.F. “Ultracentrifuge studies on soya bean protein,” p. 203-10).
      Note: By 1969 the term “sedimenting components” had been standardized to “sedimentation coefficient,” with the same meaning.
 
1956 July – The terms “7S,” “11S,” “15S” and “2S” are first used in connection with soybeans, to refer to the solubility fractions or “subunits” (a word first used by Wolf & Briggs in 1958) of soy proteins (Wolf & Briggs. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. p. 40-49).
 
1962 Feb. – The term “nitrogen solubility index” and the abbreviation “NSI” are first used in connection with soybeans. A footnote (col. 1) explains that NSI stands for “nitrogen solubility index.” (Mustakas et al. U.S. Patent No. 3,023,107). Application filed 11 Jan. 1961.
 
1963 – The word “micrographs” and the term “electron micrographs” are first used in connection with soybeans. “Large structures, identified histochemically as protein, appear in electron micrographs of developing cotyledons about 35 days before maturity and increase in number until they nearly fill the cells at maturity. These structures are considered to contain mostly storage protein,…” (Howell, Robert W. In: A.M. Altschul et al., p. 193-95).
 
1967 May – The term “protein dispersibility index” is first used in connection with soybeans when discussing different characteristics of soy flours (Horan, F.E. “Defatted and full-fat soy flours by conventional processes.” USDA Agricultural Research Service ARS-71-35. p. 129-41).
 
1969 July – The word “conglycinin” and the term “sedimentation coefficients” are first used in connection with soybeans. The author's investigations have shown that four major soybean globulins (the four major reserve proteins of soybean seeds) can be differentiated immunochemically.
      “Beta-conglycinin is the major component in the crude 7S protein... High-molecular-weight globulins, probably exhibiting 15S and higher sedimentation coefficients, are polymers or copolymers of glycinin, beta-conglycinin, and gamma-conglycinin." (Catsimpoolas, N. Cereal Chemistry, p. 369-72).
 

Click here to download the full text to open and read book History of Research on Soy Proteins - Their Properties, Detection in Mixtures, Soy Molasses, etc. (1845-2016)