Artemy A. Horvath - History of His Work with Soybeans and Soyfoods (1886-1979)
William Shurtleff, Akiko AoyagiISBN: 978-1-928914-34-1
Publication Date: 2011 May 14
Number of References in Bibliography: 206
Earliest Reference: 1878
Chronology of Artemy A. Horvath
Dr. A.A. Horvath, a Russian scientist, was one of the first Westerners to spend a significant amount of time in East Asia studying soyfoods. In 1927 he wrote, apparently describing his father, "Horvath, fifty years ago, was the first to prepare soybean coffee for the market in South Russia." Fifty years before 1927 would have been 1877, or 9 years before Artemy was born. His name in Russian: A.A. XOPBAT.
1886 July 6: Artemy Alexis Horvath is born to an aristocratic family in Russia, in the city of Kazan, the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan (the old Tatar [Tartar / Mongol] capital), located about 450 miles east of Moscow. It is presently the eighth largest city in Russia.
He receives his PhD from the Univ. of Kazan.
1914 Sept. 21: A.A. Horvath and Maria Nicholaevna Kuznetsova are married in St. Barbara's Church, Kazan, Russia. She also comes from a distinguished family.
1914-18: Horvath serves in the Russian Army during World War I. He then teaches for 2 years at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry in the Maritime Provinces of Siberia, and was an instructor in chemistry at the Vladivostok Institute of Technology.
At some point he probably also earned an M.D. degree, for he gives his title as "M.D." in eight scientific articles published from Sept. 1926 on.
1918: During the Russian Revolution, since he had an aristocratic ancestry, he escapes with his wife (who is pregnant) from Russia. They had to stop in Vladivostok (in the Russian Far East) where their first child, Irene, is born on 23 Nov. 1918. In early 1919 they arrive in China. They go first to Tientsin (pinyin: Tianjin) where their second and last child, Tatiana, is born on 24 Oct. 1920. In Tientsin Dr. Horvath "was associated as chemist for a concern processing oils and fats.” He later moved to Peking (pinyin: Beijing).
While in Peking, Dr. Horvath and his wife, Maria, and family reside (until 1927) at the gorgeous former Austria-Hungary Legation with his famous close relative Lt. General Dmitri Leonidovich Horvath and his wife (Camilla) and their staff.
1920: His first work that mentions the soybean appears in Russian: "A study of the large horned cattle of the interior of China." In: Mongolian Expedition, Material Relating to the Report. Harbin. Vol. XI.
1923: He joins the staff of the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), established by the Rockefeller Foundation. Working under a Rockefeller grant, he is put in charge of a new soybean research laboratory and program, which soon begins to generate many important publications on soyfoods and nutrition.
In published papers he listed his position there variously as "Dep. of Medicine" (Oct. 1925), "Chemical Lab." (April 1926), "M.D." (Sept. 1926), and "M.D., Former head of the Soybean Research Lab." (at PUMC, Sept. 1931).
While in China, Dr. Horvath took a keen and growing interest in the soybean and soyfoods, which he studied first hand for 6-8 years in Harbin and Dairen (Manchuria) and in China's capital, Peking.
1926 Sept.: Between September 1926 and April 1927 Horvath writes a remarkable series of six articles on soyfoods for the Chinese Economic Monthly, published by the Chinese Government Bureau of Economic Information. These clearly show his great interest in and deep knowledge of his subject. In 1927 these articles are collected in an 86-page book, The Soybean as Human Food, published by the same bureau. This excellent book is one of the best early sources of information on many subjects related to soyfoods including the early history and development of soy flour, soymilk, soy oil, and tofu in China and Europe (especially Germany), the work of Li Yu-ying and A. Berczeller, the state of the soyfoods and soybean processing industry in China and Manchuria during the 1920s, early work on soyfoods nutrition in Europe and China, plus an extensive chronological bibliography including many European works on soybeans and soyfoods.
Yet he goes one step further. Desiring to help the Chinese to become economically more self sufficient and better nourished, he urges them (and makes his case convincingly) to use their soy oil presscake to make soy flour for use as a source of high-quality, low-cost protein in their baked goods and for famine relief, rather than exporting the presscake to Japan for use there as a fertilizer, and to use more of their soy oil to develop new industrial products instead of exporting the oil then importing the products. Horvath concludes his book with this prescient statement:
If we take into consideration the enormous role which the various soybean preparations play in the diet of the natives of China, Japan, Indo-China and the Malayan Archipelago, it is evident that there is a great need for the foundation of a special Soybean Research Institute in one of the Oriental countries. This idea should meet with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation, as rational nutrition is the basis of good health.
1927 July 1: The American journal Science announces that Dr. Artemy A. Horvath has just been appointed as an Associate at the prestigious Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, in the United States.
1927 Aug. 27: Dr. A.A. Horvath (having left China for Europe) first arrives in the United States by ship from Bremen, Germany. He joins the research staff at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Department of Animal Pathology, Princeton, New Jersey.
1928 Sept. 3: Dr. Horvath arrives in the USA for a 2nd time by ship after a visit to his family in Europe.
1930-1933: He is employed as a research chemist, head of biochemical research in the Health Section of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Experiment Station in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1931 Sept.: Dr. Horvath writes his first article with "soya flour" in the title. Titled "Soya Flour as a National Food," it is published in Scientific Monthly (p. 251-60).
1932: Dr. Armand Burke and Dr. Horvath establish the Soya Corporation of America. Their goal is to make a palatable, whole (full-fat) soy flour.
1933 Dec. to 1939 Dec.: Dr. Horvath is employed at the Agricultural Experiment Station of the School of Agriculture, University of Delaware, in Newark, New Jersey. There he is head of the chemistry department. His research focuses on practical applications of the soybean.
1936 June 23: He is issued his first patent ("Insulating composition"), while living in Newark, Delaware; he had filed the application on 27 Oct. 1934. It is assigned to the Wilmington Fibre Specialty Company (of Delaware).
1937 July: Dr. Horvath applies for his first patent for a soy-based food product.
1938: His major book, The Soybean Industry (221 pages) is published in New York. He is still a chemist at the Agric. Exp. Station in Newark.
1939 Feb. 14: Dr. Horvath is issued his first and most important U.S. patent for a soy-based food product–whole soy flour with improved palatability ("Developing palatability of soya," U.S. Patent No. 2,147,097). He had applied for the patent on 28 July 1937. He assigns the patent to Soya Corporation of America (A corporation of New York). His address is Newark, New Jersey.
1939 Dec.: At age 53, Dr. Horvath retires from the University of Delaware's Agricultural Experiment Station. But he retired into The Horvath Laboratories.
1940 Feb. 5: Dr. Horvath has established The Horvath Laboratories, Inc., in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. There he develops soybean products and machinery to produce those products on a commercial basis, and he does research on the soybean in relation to agriculture and industry. The officers of the company include: Enos Valliant, president; Edwin S. Valliant, vice president; A.A. Horvath, director of research.
Note: Tatiana Reisacher, Dr. Horvath's daughter, recalls (May 2010): "I know he had a long-standing relationship with the Soya Corporation of America; that was his main focus over many, many years–even though he changed jobs several times.”
1941 (about): The Soya Corporation of America finishes constructing a factory in Hagerstown, Maryland for the manufacture of good-tasting whole soya flour.
1943 June 22: Dr. Horvath is issued a patent which he assigns to Horvath Laboratories, Inc., of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, where he now resides.
1943 Dec.: Soya Corporation of America is now making and selling Sycora Whole Soya Flour, and Full-Fat Soy Grits. Their factory is in Hagerstown, Maryland, and their offices at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, New York–a very prestigious address.
1946-1947 (about): Dr. Horvath and his wife, using income from Soya Corporation of America, buy their first home in the United States in Princeton, New Jersey; previously they had always rented. They moved there from College Park, Maryland.
1951 Oct. 21: Kim Mix is a low-cost soya food supplement of high protein value, based on soybean flour or meal, now being manufactured by the Soya Corporation of America. It was developed by Dr. Ho Jik Kim while working for his doctoral degree at Cornell University in New York. Dr. Armand Burke, "president of the Soya Corporation, describes the product as one built on the Horvath patents which his company owns and on which it has spent years of development."
1952 Feb. 15: Armand Burke, president of the Soya Corporation of America, announces that preliminary consumer tests have proved the company's new soya butter, a substitute for butter, is acceptable in taste, storage characteristics and otherwise. It is produced under the Horvath patents, which the company owns.
1953: Dr. Horvath and his wife, Maria (known as "Mimi" to her daughters) move to Santa Fe to be with their daughter, Tatiana, and her husband, Bob.
1956 April 3: Dr. Horvath is issued a U.S. patent ("Method of forming a confection and the resulting product").
1956 Dec. 13: Dr. Armand Burke, age 58, of 28 East Seventieth Street, president and founder of Soya Corporation of America and of International Soya Corporation, dies in Harkness Pavilion, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center [Manhattan, New York City]. He had been injured on Dec. 2 in an automobile accident [he was hit by a taxi] in Newark, New Jersey. After his death the corporation went rapidly downhill.
1958 Aug. 26: Dr. Horvath is issued his last patent, titled "Amendment for legume feeds." He is now living in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
1979 April 20: Dr. Horvath's wife, Maria, dies at her home in Santa Fe.
1979 Oct. 1: Dr. Horvath dies in Santa Fe, New Mexico–less than 6 months after his wife. A nice obituary appears in the local newspaper.
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