History of Soy Flour, Grits, Flakes, and Cereal-Soy Blends - Part 4

by William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi


A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History of Soybeans and
Soyfoods, 1100 B.C. to the 1980s

©Copyright 2004 Soyfoods Center, Lafayette, California

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The 1940s and World War II. The pioneering research and development work done on soy flour done during the previous 2 decades came to fruition in the 1940s, when soy flour first came to be widely available in America, just as it had in Europe. The shortages of food and animal protein brought on by World War II stimulated strong interest in soy flour as a widely available alternative source of low-cost, high-quality protein. The scenario enacted during World War I was being replayed, but on a much larger scale. Concentrated, light in weight, stable during long storage, and highly nutritious, soy flour was useful in feeding American soldiers and civilians during the war, and as a relief food sent from America to Europe and Asia during and after the war.

From a mere 13,600 tonnes (15,000 tons) in 1940, production of soy flour and grits in America jumped in 1943, the peak wartime year, to 123,300 tonnes (136,000 tons), representing roughly 3% of the total US soybean crop; only 8% of this flour was exported that year (Strand 1945). By 1945, the year the war ended, production had fallen to less than half its wartime peak, But during the 3 years immediately after the war, largely in response to the needs of war-torn Europe, production skyrocketed to new all-time heights, reaching 306,000 tonnes in 1948, at which time 82% of all soy flour and grits produced in the US were being exported. From 1949 on, as relief work tapered off, production plummeted, then increased slowly through the 1950s and 1960s. After 1950 exports used less than 6% of domestic production (Fig. ??.?). During the early 1940s whole (full-fat) soy flour accounted for roughly 35% of all soy flour produced. By 1948, however, its proportion had fallen to a mere 1%. Then it rose to a little under 10% during the early 1950s. Throughout the war years, government purchases and exports accounted for 50-80% of all soy flour used (Soybean Blue Book 1960).

Exports of soy flour and grits as food aid allies in Europe began in July 1941 and by August 1942 some 27,760 tonnes had been shipped, largely in the form of Pork and Soya Links, containing 21% soy. Most of the flour and grits were purchased by the Federal Government, with the aid of the War Food Administration, under Lend-Lease and exported to Great Britain and the USSR under Lend-Lease. Details of this program and of the foods containing soy flour that were shipped are given in detail at the section on European history, above (Payne 1943; Soybean Digest, Feb. 1944; Shuman 1949; Burtis 1950).

Anticipating a reduced supply of animal proteins during the war emergency, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council in 1943 passed a resolution recommending the use for human food of vegetable proteins of superior protein quality, of which soybeans (soy flour and grits) and peanuts were emphasized (Jones 1944). Developing reserves of these products was considered strategically important. Encouraged by the USDA to expand their soy flour production capacity, soybean processors increased it from an estimated 181,400 tonnes (200,000 tons) in late 1942 to 635,000 tonnes (700,000 tons) by December 1943. The government aided the processors by purchasing large quantities of soy flour under Lend-Lease for delivery to allies, developing and encouraging the use of soy flour in processed foods, and conducting a nationwide educational campaign through radio, magazines, newspapers, and scientific literature. They emphasized the nutritional and economic advantages of soy flour and grits (Payne 1943). The USDA Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics helped popularize use of soy flour. In October 1943 they published "Cooking with Soy Flour and Grits," containing 16 pages and 30 recipes; the 1945 revised edition of the booklet contained 130 recipes. Also in 1943 they published "Soya Flour and Grits in Wartime Meals" (12 pages) plus four posters titled "Get Acquainted with Soya Flour and Grits." One of the foremost advocates of soy flour and grits during the war was Donald S. Payne, Chief of the Soya Products Section, Food Distribution Administration, of the USDA War Food Administration. His numerous papers are a rich source of information on the period, and his energetic work and high position did much to expand interest in and utilization of these products. He liked to point out that in the early 1940s one pound (454 gm) of protein from beef cost 16.6 times as much as that from soy flour, and a pound of milk protein cost 14.3 times as much. Starting in 1942, the US armed forces began to use soy flour and grits in the concentrated biscuit used in K Rations, in pork link sausages, and in various soup powders.

Like the USDA, the Soy Flour Association and Soya Food Research Council, both supported by the soybean crushing industry, did extensive and influential work during the 1940s to expand utilization of soy flour and grits. In 1942 Ref?? the Association published a 22-page booklet titled "Edible Soy Flour." In 1943 it opened the Soya Kitchen in Chicago to develop recipes for soy flour and grits. In 1944 the Council published a report flavor acceptance of soy flour in breads, and in November 1945 it established the first standards for soy flour. On a moisture free basis the percentages of protein and fat respectively were as follows: full-fat soy flour (40% and 18% minimum), low-fat (45% and 4.5 to 9.0%), and defatted (50.0% minimum and 2.0% maximum); 97% of any type must pass through a #100 US Standard Screen. In late 1949 the Association lost its separate identity, when it was merged with the Council.

In 1938 the Germany Army High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) had published a remarkable Soya Cookbook, which used whole soy flour in most of the recipes (for details, see European history, above). In 1941 the USDA Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations published a full 90-page translation of this under the title Some Culinary Uses of Soybean Flour. Soybean Digest excerpted this in their December 1941 issue, and Weiss (1940) translated a German article on "Full Soya in the Soldier's Diet." These translations, showing Germany's widespread military use of soy flour, attracted considerable interest in the US.

By 1942 some 90 mills were turning out soy flour and grits but only a fraction of this was entering the domestic retail market. In fact in the fall of 1942 there was but one, small struggling brand of soy flour for general commercial distribution. Prior to 1943 soy flour and grits could only be obtained by consumers through health food stores. During 1943, however, soy flour suddenly became widely available nationwide. Ed Dies called making soy flour "Americanizing soy foods." A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co. led the way in June 1943 by introducing their Stoy brand low-fat expeller-type soy flour in attractive 1 and 3 pound packages, and testing it in eight markets nationwide. By March 1944 the product was being distributed to grocery stores nationwide. In 1943 Staley published a 24-page booklet containing 42 recipes for using Stoy soy flour, and in 1944 published "The Miracle of Soy" (24 pages) and an expanded (48-page) soy flour cookbook. Staley noted proudly that 1 pound of STOY low-fat soy flour was equal in protein content to 7 1/2 quarts of milk, 3 dozen eggs, 2 1/2 pounds of boneless meat, or 2 pounds of cheese. In 1943 ADM in Minnesota (which had first made soy flour in 1940) followed with its Viva Soy and The Glidden Company in Ohio, through Durkee Famous Foods, launched Durkee's Soya Bits (low-fat expeller grits) and Durkee's Soyarich (a whole/full-fat flour) for household use. Central Soya rolled out its Me-T-Soy (defatted grits), the Soya Corporation of America in Hagerstown, MD its whole flour and grits, and I.F. Laucks in Seattle its Lauxsoy Soy Meats, a meat extender. Most of these companies also had a line of commercial soy flour and grits. Closely following the lead of these manufacturer-distributors, private label brand grocery houses started to package these products for retail distribution at popular prices. GLF Farm Products in New York, The Vee-Bee Company and the P.D. Ridenour Company in Chicago, and Honeymead Products in Iowa got on the bandwagon. Health food manufacturers such as Butler Foods and others who had led the way in introducing soy flour during the 1930s, expanded their markets during the war. More complex products were also developed. In 1945 Kellogg's Corn-Soya Shreds, a breakfast cereal, was introduced, and by 1947 it had nationwide distribution. At about the same time puffed soy grits flour-based "soy butter" were developed (Lager 1945). Other manufacturers of soy flour and/or grits in 1943 were Commander-Larabee Milling Co. (MN), Proctor & Gamble Co. (OH), Soya Products Co. (NY), Spencer Kellogg and Sons (IL), and Swift & Co. (IL). In these various ways, through numerous regional distributors, soy flour and grits came to be available at grocery stores from coast to coast (Payne 1943; Soybean Digest, Nov. 1943).

During the war, soy flour was promoted for use chiefly as a fortifier for cereal grains, mostly in baked goods (such as breads, muffins, and cakes, where it conserved shortening too) but also in macaroni (15% soy flour) and other pasta products, waffles, cookies, crackers, and breakfast cereals; together, these accounted for about 40% of total soy flour usage. Soy grits were used mainly as a meat extender, especially in sausages, which consumed about 20% of the total, but also in meat loaves and patties. (Soy flour was not allowed to be used in sausages until the late 1940s, when a change in federal regulations allowed addition of 3.5%). Indeed, the war brought with it an avalanche of meat extenders. For example, in 1944 Joseph Tetley & Co. introduced the Beanburger, a dry mixture of soy grits, flour, dehydrated onions, and seasonings, designed as an extender for hamburgers, meat loaves, etc. Flour and grits were also used in chocolate bars and other candies, salad dressings, beer, soup powders, and even ice cream. Tests showed clearly that when soy flour replaced part of the milk in ice cream, the texture and appearance were definitely improved and no other quality factor was impaired (Payne 1943; Burnett 1950). Although use of soy flour and grits in households never proved very popular, they were widely used in the above processed foods. They were also used in school lunch programs and restaurants. In early 1943 the USDA Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics published "School Lunch Recipes," featuring 7 pages of bulk recipes for flour and grits. In Decatur, Illinois (billed as the "Soybean Capital of the World"), the Orlando Restaurant introduced "Soy Cakes" on its breakfast menu.

The American media also did their share to teach Americans about these unfamiliar, new soyfoods. For example, between June 1942 and January 1944, Jane Holt wrote a series of articles in The New York Times about soyfoods, most of which featured soy flour and grits in a very positive and informative way. She gave recipes, plus information on nutrition, government work, new publications, and the like.

In these many ways, per capita civilian consumption of soy flour and grits jumped from 45 gm (0.1 pound) in 1935-39 to 726 gm (1.6 pounds) in 1944 (New York Times 1943; Strand 1945; Burnett 1950).

Uses for soy flour in nonhuman foods also expanded. By the late 1940s large quantities were being used in pet foods as a source of protein, minerals and flavor, and in the early spring beekeepers sometimes fed their bees whole soy flour as a pollen supplement or substitute, with good results (Morse and Cartter 1952).

Throughout the war years and until the late 1940s research on soy flour and its use in other foods flourished, and many scientific articles were published in the areas of both quality improvement and nutrition. Beckel and Smith (Year??) of the USDA found that extracting the oil from soybean meal with ethanol (ethyl alcohol) significantly improved the flavor and color of soy flour, removing much of the beany or bitter flavors. Faulkner and Simpson (1946) at the University of Illinois did two studies on the use of soy flours in baked goods, such as breads, muffins, and cakes. In a test of 18 soy flours they found that full-fat flour gave significantly better results than low-fat for muffins, but that low-fat was best for light cakes, imparting greater volume.

Nutritional research was concerned primarily with the Biological Value (a measure of protein quality) and digestibility of soy flour, and the supplemental value of soy flour protein when added to bread. Jones and Divine (1942, 1944) of the USDA showed that a mixture of 5 parts soy flour and 95 parts wheat contained 19% more protein that wheat flour alone and had twice its growth promoting value. When wheat flour was enriched with soy flour at the 5%, 10%, and 15% levels, the gain per gram of protein consumed by rats was 0.75 gm for plain wheat flour, and 1.38, 2.16, and 2.27 gm respectively for the three levels of soy flour. Thus rats grow almost three times as fast on bread fortified with 10% soy flour than without. In nongovernmental research, Harris et al. (1944) showed that white bread fortified with 3% soy flour was equivalent in terms of animal growth to white bread containing 4% milk solids, and that bread containing 3% nonfat dry milk and 2.3% whole soy flour was superior to bread containing 6% nonfat dry milk. Carlson et al. (1946) at ADM got similar results. Cahill, Schroeder, and Smith (1944), in metabolism studies with 10 human subjects, showed soy flour to have 94% the digestibility and 91.7% the Biological Value as whole egg protein. Bricker et al. (1945), in tests on human subjects, found the protein quality of soy flour, as measured by Biological Value, to be 65% as compared with 41% for white wheat flour and 74% for milk. Mitchell at al. (1945), in nitrogen balance studies with rats, found soy flour to have a Biological Value of 75.2%, which compared very favorably with 78% for beef round. Volz et al. (1945) at Cornell reported that the addition of 5% soy significantly improved the growth promoting value for rats of white bread which contained 3% whole milk solids; the Biological Value was increased by 10%. Selke (1945) wrote a MS thesis at Cornell on soy flour nutrition and soy bread acceptability. Sure (1946) reported that small additions of soy flour to enriched patent (white) flour improved the protein values substantially. Substitutions of 1, 3, and 5% enriched flour with equivalent amounts of soy flour increased the total protein of the food by 4.2, 12.5 and 20.8% while increasing the Biological Value by 23.9, 45.5, and 60.2% respectively. In 1949 Shuman, Director of Nutrition for the Soya Food Research Council in Washington, D.C., published an excellent 32-page review of the literature on the nutritional value of soy flour.

The nutritional case in favor of using soy flour to fortify baked goods was a strong one. Various promoters of soy flour estimated in the early 1940s that if only 5% soy flour were added to all bread baked in America (commercially, at foodservice institutions, and in homes) it would require the use of about 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of soy flour. In 1940 only about 2.09 million tonnes of soybeans were harvested in America. Yet not all government agencies favored extensive use of soy flour in bread. In fact in the mid-1940s the Pure Food and Drug Administration aroused great controversy by proposing that soy flour be considered an adulterant in bread and that its legal usage be limited to one half of one percent, an insignificant amount. During the war years the Bureau of Animal Industry allowed the use of 3.5% soy flour or grits as a binder in sausages entering interstate commerce, but many states allowed the use of 10% (Lager 1945).

The government fear that meat supplies might become dangerously low during the war and that Americans might face an austere British-type wartime diet (Trussell 1943), never materialized. Although meat was rationed during the war, per capita consumption actually rose from an average 59.1 kg (130 lb) prewar level to 71.8 kg (158 lb) in 1944, only 1.8 kg (4 lb) below the all-time high set in 1908. Production of most meats and dairy products rose to new heights. In the face of this flood of animal protein it is quite remarkable that such large amounts of soy flour and grits were also used (Payne 1944).

Among the many Americans who worked to popularize the use of soy flour during the war, Clive and Jeanette McCay at Cornell University and Mildred Lager in Los Angeles deserve special mention. The McCays developed Cornell Formula Bread, containing soy flour, and Mildred Lager discussed soy flour at length in her popular books and radio broadcasts. The stories of their lives and work are described in chapters 46 and 47.

After the war, large orders for soy flour were placed by the US Army and by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration for relief feeding in Europe and Asia. The USA's ill-fated soya wurst program in Germany is described at European history, above. The war ended with a glut of soy flour in America. After the government's insistence that lots of soy flour be produced in a hurry, much was actually over-produced. A great deal of the tonnage sent abroad to countries such as France and Greece was apparently not accepted. Forrestal (1982) reported that the A.E. Staley warehouse in Ohio had mountains of soy flour that nobody seemed to want; eventually it became weevily and was fed to cattle. Nevertheless, by the late 1940s the US had shipped soy flour to more than 20 foreign countries (Payne 1943; Soybean Digest, Feb. 1944; Shuman 1949; Burtis 1950).

One interesting soyfood of international and historical importance, developed in California shortly after World War II, was Multi-Purpose Food (MPF, initially called Multi-Purpose Meal). The man behind this innovative product was Clifford E. Clinton. MPF was developed in 1942 and was the forerunner of the various cereal-soy blends, described later. The full story of MPF is given in Chapter 66. (Summarize here?? Yes.).

In the US shortly after World War II, as animal proteins became much more plentiful and less expensive, consumer sized packages of soy flour largely passed out of the picture, never to reappear except in health food stores. However total production of soy flour (now largely defatted) continued strong, averaging 62,000 tonnes a year from 1950 to 1954, jumping to 103,000 from 1955 to 1958, when official statistics stopped being recorded. Exports after 1950 were insignificant (Soybean Blue Book 1960). Markley (1950) noted that large amounts of defatted soybean flakes were used in breakfast cereals and by the brewing industry, and that the use of soy flour and grits by the meat industry as a binder and emulsifier in sausages and meat loaves was one of the most rapidly growing uses.

During the 1950s good recipe booklets and cookbooks featuring soy flour recipes were written by Van Duyne (1950) and Chen (1956).

1960 to 1980s. The period from 1960 to the 1980s saw three major developments in the field of soy flour, grits, and flakes. First, the establishment of the PL 480 and Food for Peace Programs, which created a new breed of cereal-soy blends and shipped over 4.6 million tonnes of these to Third World countries. Second, the development of sophisticated large and small extrusion cookers, which were used to make the new soy-fortified foods. And third, the expansion of soy flour production and utilization in the USA.

Food For Peace Program. Probably the most significant advance for soy flour during the 1960s was the development of high-protein soy-and-cereal grain blends such as CSM (Corn-Soy-Milk) and WSB (Wheat-Soy-Blend), which were used in US foreign aid programs. Authorization for the foreign food donation programs was given by an Act of Congress in 1949, at just the time that relief aid to Europe was dwindling. The authority was greatly expanded in 1954 by Public Law 480 (PL 480), the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act. Title I of this act allowed for low-interest sales and Title II for food donations to needy countries. The stated objective of the program was to relieve world hunger using surplus American commodities. In 1961 the USDA, under PL 480, began to work with various governmental committees, worldwide relief agencies, and the Soybean Council in an ambitious program to explore ways of using soy flour and cereal-soy blends to help relieve malnutrition around the world. Details of this work will be discussed later, but since soybeans were not a surplus commodity, soy flour did not qualify for inclusion in the PL 480 program. In 1965 guidelines for blended food supplements were established by the USDA's Committee on Food Processing in Developing Countries in cooperation with the Department of State's Agency for International Development (AID) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These specified that products should require no more than 1-2 minutes of cooking (Senti et al. 1967). In 1966, under President Johnson, PL 480 was amended and became known as the Food for Peace Program, which became effective 1 January 1967. It featured a new emphasis on nutrition and self-help efforts by recipient countries and removed the requirement that a commodity be in surplus to be eligible for distribution under foreign donation programs, thus broadening the range of available ingredients and opening the way to new low-cost, soy-fortified blended foods (Shaughnessy 1976; Bookwalter 1981). The US believed that self-help programs would lead to more genuine overseas development but it also wanted to sell more US grains and soybeans abroad. The history of the PL 480/Food for Peace program is detailed in Chapter 40, since soy oil was one of the major components of the program, larger than soy flour.

There were various reasons that interest in soy-fortified foods began to grow in the early 1960s: (1) advances in nutrition and food science, which used the principle of protein complementarity to develop plant protein mixtures that were nutritionally equivalent to animal proteins; (2) a growing shortage in America of nonfat dried milk and other milk products, which had previously been used in large quantities in food-transfer programs for children and other vulnerable groups; and (3) a growing belief that protein was the main nutrient in short supply in Third World countries, and that preschoolers and pregnant and nursing mothers were the main groups in need of it. Thus the new blended foods were designed and targeted for these groups, which could be reached through an expanding network of maternal and child-health centers (Altschul 1965, 1976; Altschul and Wilcke 1981). These new foods had three major points in their favor: they were nutritious, very inexpensive, and convenient, requiring only minutes to prepare.

Another important and independent early stimulus for the development of new high-protein blended foods was the work done in Guatemala in the early 1960s at the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP). In response to malnutrition problems (especially among children) in the region they developed a series of nutritious cereal-legume blends, generically known as Incaparina (Scrimshaw et al. 1961). Incaparina created a new model, the cereal-legume, for low-cost protein-rich foods. Originally cottonseed flour was the main protein source in Incaparina, but by 1962 soy flour was being used as well (Bressani and Elias 1966; Bressani 1967; for details, see Guatemala, below).

During the early 1960s soy flour first began to be produced by a new technique called extrusion cooking, which was a relatively late development in the history of food extrusion. Single screw extruders were first used in the mid-1930s as a continuous pasta press, which revolutionized the pasta industry. In the late 1930s General Mills became the first to use an extruder to make ready-to-eat cereals; like the pasta extruder, it shaped a hot precooked cereal dough. Expanded corn collets or curls were first extruded in 1936, but the product was not commercially developed until 1946 by the Adams Corp. In the late 1940s the desire to precook animal feeds to improve their digestibility and palatability led to the development of the first cooking extruders, or extrusion cookers, which greatly expanded the application of extruders in the food field. Dry expanded extrusion-cooked pet foods developed quickly during the 1950s, largely replacing the biscuit-baking processes that had previously been used to make them (O.B.Smith 1969; Harper 1981)

The key technological breakthrough that led to widespread extrusion cooking of soybeans for food use was the development of the Short Time/High Temperature extrusion cooking technique and cooker by Wenger International, Inc. (at that time called Wenger Mixer Mfg.) of Sabetha, Kansas, and of Kansas City, Missouri. In its simplest form, an extrusion cooker consists of a heavy cylinder or barrel in which a close-fitting screw rotates at moderately high speed. At the feed end of the barrel is an opening for running in the ingredients to be cooked (typically ground soybeans and/or grains). At the opposite or discharge end is a much smaller opening (a die), through which the product is forced out. Rotation of the screw by a motor generates frictional heat in the mixture and this, combined with the pressure of forcing the ingredients through the small die opening, cooks them. Ingredients containing 15-30% moisture become a fluid mass under the high temperature and pressure. As this mass is pushed out of the extruder, the sudden reduction in pressure causes it to puff up or expand. After the product has cooled, it can then be ground to a flour (Harper and Jansen 1977). The high-temperature short time cooking process denatures enzymes that cause oils to rancidify, inactivates antinutritional factors (such as trypsin inhibitors), pasteurizes the finished product, cooks the starch and proteins to make them more digestible and better tasting and, if desired, can impart form and texture to the finished product (O.B. Smith 1969). From the early 1920s to the early 1960s most soy flour had been made by steaming whole soybeans, drying them, then grinding them in a flour mill . . . a time consuming and relatively expensive process. The new extrusion process greatly simplified and thus revolutionized the manufacture of soy flour and cereal-soy blends from the early 1960s on.

The first Wenger extrusion cookers of any type were delivered in 1957, and at about the same time experimental production of whole (full-fat) soy flour began. Wenger located a manufacturer of impact milling equipment (Alpine GMBH in Augsburg, West Germany, maker of the Alpine Contraplex Mill) which, for the first time made it possible to produce a whole soy flour from extrusion cooked (dehulled and ground) soybeans. Research done at Purdue University from 1958-61 under a grant-in-aid from Wenger, feeding swine with mixed feeds containing extruded full-fat soybean meal, showed that the extrusion cooking process was effective in controlling growth inhibitors (especially trypsin inhibitors) found in raw soy proteins and producing a product of high protein value (Jimenez et al. 1961). In 1961 Wenger delivered its first extrusion cooker for making whole soy flour and meal, and in September of that year applied for a patent covering extrusion cooking of soybeans and cereal-soy blends; this was eventually granted as US Patent 3,385,709. The Purdue experiments suggested that extrusion cooked, dehulled soybeans might be used to produce an edible whole soy flour. Thus, in 1961 Oak B. Smith of Wenger suggested to UNICEF (and later to the USDA) that extrusion cooked cereal-soy blends and whole soy flour might be used as low-cost, protein-rich, precooked foods for protein deficient areas of the world (O.B. Smith 1969). In the following years Oak Smith, Joe Wenger, and others at Wenger, through their educational and promotional programs, informed the world of the great value of extrusion cooking and installed hundreds of extruders in both developed and developing countries. Many of these were used for processing soybeans.

The research starting after 1961 (sponsored by UNICEF and conducted jointly by the USDA Northern Regional Research Center at Peoria, Illinois, and by Wenger) resulted in a landmark 1964 publication by Mustakas, Griffin, Allen, and Smith titled "Production and Nutritional Evaluation of Extrusion-Cooked Full-Fat Soybean Flour." The flour was shown to have good flavor, high nutritive value, long storage life without rancidification, and low bacteria count. The good stability was caused by the heat treatment, which inactivated the lipoxygenase enzymes that normally caused rapid oxidative rancidity of the oil in soy flour shortly after grinding. To determine the nutritional value of this soy flour when fed to infants, Wenger arranged with UNICEF to run feeding trials in 1963 at the College of Medicine, University of Taipei, in Taiwan. A bottle-fed formula based on whole soy flour made by the Wenger extrusion process was used. In 1964 DeMaeyer published the favorable results of this study in Bulletin No. 5 of the Protein Advisory Group to the United Nations. During the decades that followed, Wenger became a leading manufacturer of extrusion cookers used to make soy flour and, even more important, textured soy protein products. Extrusion cooking became the basic process used to make most of the PL 480 cereal-soy blends, and later the many similar foods produced on low-cost extrusion cookers, which catapulted soy flour (and grits) to international fame (O.B. Smith 1969, 1981). More details on Wenger's work and on double-extrusion techniques are given in the next chapter. Other companies that later began to make large extrusion cookers were Anderson IBEC and Bonno/Bonnaut. (sp??) The introduction of low-cost extrusion cookers (LEC's), which began in about 1969, will be discussed later.

Following publication of the 1964 article on extrusion cooking of full-fat soy flour, the USDA Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC) in cooperation with USAID continued to do important work on soy flour, and especially on the development of simple, low-cost methods for its production. In 1966 Mustakas and co-workers (Ref??) published a follow-up study titled "Full-Fat Soybean Flours by Continuous Extrusion Cooking," based on work done with UNICEF for application in Third World countries. This early work at NRRC played a key role in sparking interest in low-cost extrusion cookers (LEC's), which led to their eventual introduction to many Third World countries (see below). It also led to a Taiwanese firm purchasing a high-pressure extrusion cooker and in 1966 making commercial whole soy flour-and-rice blends (Tepley 1967, in USDA-ARS 1967). The second phase of the NRRC's research program was to develop a simple hand-powered process for making whole soy flour in Third World villages without the use of skilled labor, electricity, or expensive equipment. This process was described in 1967 by Mustakas and co-workers in "Full Fat Soy Flour by a Simple Process for Villagers." The process allowed six men, using equipment costing less than $300 in 1978, to produce 136 kg (300 lb) of dehulled full-fat soy flour per 8-hour day--enough to supply half the daily protein requirements for more than 1,500 adults. In late 1966 UNICEF purchased six of these machines for the Brazilian Ministry of Health. In 1967 Mustakas went to northern Brazil to demonstrate the equipment and process (Dimler 1967). Mustakas (1976) and Wang et al. (1979) reported that the process had been widely used in Third World villages, and research and nutrition centers. UNICEF purchased and delivered equipment, and trained officials in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The flour was tested in beverages, gruels, yeast breads, corn bread, unleavened breads, noodles, stews, curries, chapatis, and puris. In any of these products, researchers noted, it could go a long way in supplementing the low protein diets of youngsters eating mostly starchy foods such as cassavas, yams, white rice, or corn. Mustakas and co-workers at NRRC published subsequent papers on whole soy flours in 1969 (lipoxydase deactivation) and 1971 (human nutrition).

In about 1961, parallel to the work being done by Wenger and the NRRC, the USDA began to work with various organizations, under the PL 480 program, to use soy flour and cereal-soy blends to help relieve malnutrition around the world. Most of the early blends were based on corn or wheat, since these were abundant in America and, being usually cooked after grinding, were easy to fortify with soy flour; rice, which was almost always eaten in kernel form, was difficult to fortify. In 1973 bulgur and corn meal, both granular products, started to be fortified with soy grits. In about 1966 the first blended food was developed. Called CEPLAPRO, it was a mixture of cornmeal, wheat flour, processed soy grits, nonfat dry milk, soy oil, and a vitamin/mineral premix (Senti 1967; Shaughnessy 1976).

In 1966 CEPLAPRO was replaced by CSM Formula #2. The original corn-soy-milk, a blend developed by the American Millers' Association and the USDA, consisted of 68% cornmeal, 25% defatted soy flour, and 5% nonfat dry milk enriched with 2% vitamins and minerals (Dimler 1967). In September of that year it became the first soy-fortified blended food to be shipped to needy countries. CSM was an instant success. Total shipments rose to 136,000 tonnes by 1968, 454,000 tonnes by 1971, and 1,270,000 tonnes by 1974. In 1969 WSB (wheat-soy blend) was launched, followed by soy flour (defatted) in 1971. Soy fortification of PL 480 commodities really came into full stride in 1973. Shipments skyrocketed in response to severe hunger in many Third World countries and growing acceptance of the concept that the nutritional value of many commodities could and should be greatly enhanced at very low cost through fortification with soy flour. Many new products were introduced. The leading blends in order of tonnes shipped that year were Soy Fortified Bulgur (SFB, 140,200 tonnes, developed for Middle Eastern countries), CSM (135,600 tonnes) WSB (74,400 tonnes), and Instant CSM (59,400 tonnes), as shown in Figure ??.??. Over 100 countries were then being served by the PL 480 program. In December 1975 PL 480 was again amended and strengthened with a guarantee that 1.18 million tonnes of food (of all types) would be donated each year under Title II; this further stimulated shipments of blended foods. In 1979 several unique new blends were introduced, including Soy Fortified Rice, Whey Soy Drink Mix (WSD), and Wheat Protein Concentrate/Soy (containing 41% WPC and 36% full-fat soy flour, a high protein-calorie density food). All but the latter of these three were discontinued after one year, and WPC was shipped in amounts of less than 500 tonnes a year. Yearly total shipments of all these foods reached an all-time peak in 1979, when 663,100 tonnes were sent abroad (Fig. ??.??).

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